Abstract

A mode size converter for efficient fiber coupling to silicon slot waveguides was proposed and demonstrated. It consists of two inverted lateral tapers that extend from the two strips of the silicon slot waveguide, and an overlaid low index waveguide with expanded mode size. Parameters including taper length and taper tip width were optimized with computer simulations. Samples were fabricated with a combined electron beam and photolithography process on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The measured coupling loss to a standard single mode optical fiber was reduced by 8 dB for TE mode and 5.2 dB for TM mode with the converter.

© 2009 OSA

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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, N. Zhu, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, D. Dai, and S. He, “Ultracompact low-loss coupler between strip and slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1498–1500 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

C. A. Barrios, M. J. Bañuls, V. González-Pedro, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, A. Maquieira, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Label-free optical biosensing with slot-waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 708–710 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alder, T.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

Casquel, R.

Chen, A.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Galan, J. V.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

González-Pedro, V.

Griol, A.

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

He, S.

Heinzelmann, R.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Holgado, M.

Jager, D.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Jordana, E.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Maquieira, A.

Marti, J.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S.

Michel, J.

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, M.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

Sanchis, P.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schroeder, H.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohlström, H.

Stohr, A.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P. A.

Sun, H.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

Tang, Y.

Tekin, T.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, N.

Zimmermann, L.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, J. Marti, J. M. Fedeli, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, and M. Perrin, “Silicon sandwiched slot waveguide grating couplers,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 262–264 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LEOS Newsletter

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring Nanphotonics to application – Silicon Phontonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 22, 4–14 (2008).

IEEE Photon. J.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Alder, A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jager, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip coupling using low-loss tapered single-mode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1016–1018 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

J. V. Galan, P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez, and J. Marti, “High efficiency fiber coupling to silicon sandwiched slot waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 281(20), 5173–5176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Saynatjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, “Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics,” Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T–1-9 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the proposed mode size converter. (a) 3D view of the structure. (b) Profile of the silicon slot waveguide and its optical mode for TE polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results of the mode size converter. (a) Mode mismatch loss from an optical fiber to the silicon slot waveguide and polymer waveguide vs. MFD of the fiber. (b) Mode mismatch loss at the taper tips vs. taper tip width. (c) Conversion efficiency along the taper section vs. taper length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Layout of the samples (not drawn in scale). 20 silicon slot waveguides with 90° bends are terminated at both ends with the mode size converters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured insertion loss of silicon slot waveguides with and without input taper couplers. (a) is for TE and (b) is for TM polarization.

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