Abstract

We report on the fabrication of chalcogenide glass (Ag-As2Se3) photonic crystal waveguides and the first detailed characterization of the linear and nonlinear optical properties. The waveguides, fabricated by e-beam lithography and ICP etching exhibit typical transmission spectra of photonic crystal waveguides, and exhibit high optical nonlinearity. Nonlinear phase shift of 1.5π through self-phase modulation is observed at 0.78 W input peak power in a 400 μm long device. The effective nonlinear parameter γeff estimated from this result reaches 2.6 × 104 W−1m−1. Four-wave mixing is also observed in the waveguide, while two-photon absorption at optical communication wavelengths is sufficiently small and the corresponding figure of merit is larger than 11.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (5)

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Aggarwal, I. D.

Asakawa, K.

Baba, T.

Baker, N. J.

Baron, A.

Charters, R. B.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cheong, S. W.

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

Combrié, S.

Corcoran, B.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

de Rossi, A.

De Sterke, C. M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DeCorby, R. G.

Delaye, P.

Dubreuil, N.

Dulkeith, E.

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20374 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finsterbusch, K.

Freeman, D.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, R.

Frumar, M.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

Fukuda, H.

Gai, X.

Gamaly, E. G.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamachi, Y.

Harbold, J. M.

Haugen, C. J.

Hwang, H. Y.

Ikeda, N.

Ilday, F. O.

Ilday, F. Ö.

Inoue, K.

Itabashi, S.

Kasap, S. O.

T. G. Robinson, R. G. DeCorby, J. N. McMullin, C. J. Haugen, S. O. Kasap, and D. Tonchev, “Strong Bragg gratings photoinduced by 633-nm illumination in evaporated As2Se3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 459–461 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Kitao, M.

Krauss, T. F.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Krolikowska, M.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Lamont, M. R.

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lee, M. W.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

Luther-Davies, B.

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20374 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mackova, A.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Maeda, S.

Mägi, E.

McMullin, J. N.

Minakata, M.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Nguyen, V. Q.

O’Faolain, L.

Oda, H.

O'Faolain, L.

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ogusu, K.

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Pelusi, M.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Perina, V.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

Pudo, D.

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Rauhala, E.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, T. G.

Rode, A.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Ruan, Y.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Samoc, M.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Seppala, A.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shoji, T.

Slusher, R. E.

Smith, C. L.

Smith, C. L. C.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Steel, M. J.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Ta’eed, V. G.

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, D.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vlcek, M.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vleck, M.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vy Tran, Q.

Wagner, T.

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

White, T. P.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Yamada, K.

Yamasaki, J.

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 481–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Corcoran, C. Monat, C. Grillet, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Green light emission in silicon through slow-light enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic-crystal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 206–210 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhancement of nonlinear effects in silicon engineered photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2944–2953 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2944 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baron, A. Ryasnyanskiy, N. Dubreuil, P. Delaye, Q. Vy Tran, S. Combrié, A. de Rossi, R. Frey, and G. Roosen, “Light localization induced enhancement of third order nonlinearities in a GaAs photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 552–557 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-2-552 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, H. Oda, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, “Enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in slow-light photonic-crystal slab waveguides of line-defect,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7206–7216 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-9-7206 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. G. Poulton, C. Monat, C. L. Smith, E. Mägi, D. Freeman, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Characterizing photonic crystal waveguides with an expanded k-space evanescent coupling technique,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13800–13808 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13800 .
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E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-15-9205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, and B. J. Eggleton, “Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20374–20381 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20374 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suzuki, K. Ogusu, and M. Minakata, “Single-mode Ag-As2Se3 strip-loaded waveguides for applications to all-optical devices,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8634–8641 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8634 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photon. Nanostructures (1)

D. Freeman, C. Grillet, M. W. Lee, C. L. C. Smith, Y. Ruan, A. Rode, M. Krolikowska, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, Y. H. Lee, and B. J. Eggleton, “Chalcogenide glass photonic crystals,” Photon. Nanostructures 6, 3–11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Photonic. Nanostruct (1)

D. Pudo, B. Corcoran, C. Monat, M. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O'Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Investigation of slow light enhanced nonlinear transmission for all-optical regeneration in silicon photonic crystal waveguides at 10 Gbit/s,” Photonic. Nanostruct ,” Corrected Proof. In Press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Solid State Ion. (1)

T. Wagner, V. Perina, A. Mackova, E. Rauhala, A. Seppala, M. Vleck, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, and M. Frumar, “The tailoring of the composition of Ag-As-S amorphous films using photo-induced solid state reaction between Ag and As30S70 films,” Solid State Ion. 141-142(1), 387–395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Fourth ed. (Academic Press, London, 2007).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Third ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2008).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguide. (b) Band diagram of Ag-As2Se3 photonic crystal waveguide. (c) Magnified figure of (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process of the Ag-As2Se3 chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguides. (a) Ti thermal evaporation. (b) As2Se3 thermal evaporation. (c) Ag thermal evaporation. (d) Photo-doping of Ag into As2Se3 using Halogen lamp. (e) EB writing of photonic crystal waveguides. (f) ICP etching using a CHF3/CF4 gas mixture. (g) EB resist removal using ZDMAC remover. (h) Wet-etching in HF and HCl solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of a fabricated Ag-As2Se3 photonic crystal waveguide. (a) Cross-sectional view. (b) Top view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of a fabricated chalcogenide glass photonic crystal waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for self-phase modulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra of output pulse exhibiting SPM. Each spectrum is normalized to the peak magnitude

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output average power versus input peak power characteristic.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for FWM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectra of output pulse exhibiting FWM in Ag-As2Se3 PCW.

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