Abstract

The polarization characteristics of an artificial laser source in space were measured through space-to-ground atmospheric transmission paths. An existing Japanese laser communication satellite and optical ground station were used to measure Stokes parameters and the degree of polarization of the laser beam transmitted from the satellite. As a result, the polarization was preserved within an rms error of 1.6°, and the degree of polarization was 99.4±4.4% through the space-to-ground atmosphere. These results contribute to the link estimation for quantum key distribution via space and provide the potential for enhancements in quantum cryptography worldwide in the future.

© 2009 OSA

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M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

G. D. Schmidt, R. Elston, and O. L. Lupie, “The Hubble Space Telescope northern-hemisphere grid of stellar polarimetric standards,” Astron. J. 104(4), 1563–1567 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Breger and J. C. Hsu, “On standard polarized stars,” Astrophys. J. 262, 732–738 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, “The Polarization Characteristics of Lidar Scattering from Snow and Ice Crystals in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16(1), 70–80 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

1969

1967

J. W. Strohbehn and S. F. Clifford, “Polarization and Angle-of -Arrival Fluctuatifoonr sa Plane Wave Propagated Through a Turbulent Medium,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, AP 15(3), 416–421 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Alferness, R.

Arai,

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arai, K.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Axon, D.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Batcheldor, D.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, M.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, J. N.

Breger, M.

M. Breger and J. C. Hsu, “On standard polarized stars,” Astrophys. J. 262, 732–738 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, “The Polarization Characteristics of Lidar Scattering from Snow and Ice Crystals in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16(1), 70–80 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cerf, N. J.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

J. W. Strohbehn and S. F. Clifford, “Polarization and Angle-of -Arrival Fluctuatifoonr sa Plane Wave Propagated Through a Turbulent Medium,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, AP 15(3), 416–421 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

Derkacs, D.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Elston, R.

G. D. Schmidt, R. Elston, and O. L. Lupie, “The Hubble Space Telescope northern-hemisphere grid of stellar polarimetric standards,” Astron. J. 104(4), 1563–1567 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, D. R.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fürst, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hines, D. C.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höhn, D.

Hsu, J. C.

M. Breger and J. C. Hsu, “On standard polarized stars,” Astrophys. J. 262, 732–738 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R. J.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jono, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kravtsov, Y. A.

Kunimori, H.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuri, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lupie, O. L.

G. D. Schmidt, R. Elston, and O. L. Lupie, “The Hubble Space Telescope northern-hemisphere grid of stellar polarimetric standards,” Astron. J. 104(4), 1563–1567 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyenburg, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, J.

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natraj, V.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nordholt, J. E.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ömer, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S. R.

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, “The Polarization Characteristics of Lidar Scattering from Snow and Ice Crystals in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16(1), 70–80 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Perdigues, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, A.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sander, S. P.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, G. D.

G. D. Schmidt, R. Elston, and O. L. Lupie, “The Hubble Space Telescope northern-hemisphere grid of stellar polarimetric standards,” Astron. J. 104(4), 1563–1567 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shia, R.-L.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sodnik, Z.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, W.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spur, F. J. D.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stander, S. P.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J. W.

J. W. Strohbehn and S. F. Clifford, “Polarization and Angle-of -Arrival Fluctuatifoonr sa Plane Wave Propagated Through a Turbulent Medium,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, AP 15(3), 416–421 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tadhunter, C.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeoka, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takizawa, K.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, M.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Toyoshima, M.

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J. W.

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamawaki, K.

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Acta Astronaut.

M. Toyoshima, T. Yamakawa, K. Yamawaki, and Arai, “Reconfirmation of the optical performances of the laser communications terminal onboard the OICETS satellite,” Acta Astronaut. 55(3-9), 261–269 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. J.

G. D. Schmidt, R. Elston, and O. L. Lupie, “The Hubble Space Telescope northern-hemisphere grid of stellar polarimetric standards,” Astron. J. 104(4), 1563–1567 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

M. Breger and J. C. Hsu, “On standard polarized stars,” Astrophys. J. 262, 732–738 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE AES Magazine

M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, T. Jono, Y. Takayama, and K. Arai, “Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments,” IEEE AES Magazine 23, 10–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, AP

J. W. Strohbehn and S. F. Clifford, “Polarization and Angle-of -Arrival Fluctuatifoonr sa Plane Wave Propagated Through a Turbulent Medium,” IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, AP 15(3), 416–421 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, “The Polarization Characteristics of Lidar Scattering from Snow and Ice Crystals in the Atmosphere,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 16(1), 70–80 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14D14), 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Stander, and L. D. Travis, “Modeling of atmospheric radiative transfer with polarization and its application to the remote sensing of tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 84(2), 169–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, V. Natraj, D. R. Feldman, F. J. D. Spur, R.-L. Shia, S. P. Sander, and Y. L. Yung, “Retrieval of ozone profile from ground-based measurements with polarization: A synthetic study,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103(1), 175–192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” N. J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement based quantum communication over 144 km,” Nat. Phys. 3(7), 481–486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of Quantum Key Distribution Using d-Level Systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(127902), 1–4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara, M. Takeoka, J. Mizuno, and M. Sasaki, “Exceeding the classical capacity limit in a quantum optical channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167906 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

D. Batcheldor, A. Robinson, D. Axon, D. C. Hines, W. Sparks, and C. Tadhunter, “The NICMOS polarimetric calibration,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118(842), 642–650 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger, eds., The Physics of Quantum Information, (Springer, New York, 2000).

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) “Report on science and technology policy on contributing the secure and safety society,” http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/kagaku/anzen/houkoku/04042302/all.pdf (in Japanese, 2004)

C. H. Bennett, and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” Proc. International Conference on Computers, Systems & Signal Processing, Bangalore, India, (1984).

Specification sheet of Cerberis, http://www.idquantique.com/products/files/Cerberis-specs.pdf

Data sheet of MAGIQ QPN 8505, http://www.magiqtech.com/MagiQ/Products_files/8505_Data_Sheet.pdf

Data sheet of SQBox Defender, http://www.smartquantum.com/IMG/pdf/SQBox_Defender_Datasheet-3.pdf

M. E. Peck, “Geneva Vote Will Use Quantum Cryptography,” http://spectrum.ieee.org/oct07/5634

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics–7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, London, 1999).

D. Roddy, Satellite communications–2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

J. Grosinger, “Investigation of Polarization Modulation in Optical Free Space Communications through the Atmosphere,” Master Thesis, Technical University of Vienna, February, (2008).

Interstellar-polarized standard stars, University of Arizona, http://chinadoll.as.arizona.edu/~schmidt/spol/polstds.html

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of ground-to-satellite laser communications experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser light from the laser terminal onboard OICETS (bright spot in center) captured by CCD video camera beside the 1.5-m telescope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Configuration of the NICT optical ground station.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Degree of polarization and received power of the downlink laser beam from the satellite.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stokes parameters (S1, S2, S3) of the downlink laser beam from the satellite.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization characteristics of the downlink laser beam from the satellite. The blue, green and red dots show the data when the optical powers were received at −39 to −35, −41 to −39 and −43 to −41 dBm, respectively.

Equations (1)

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σ φ = 1 2 π 3 / 4 Δ n 2 1 / 2 l 3 / 2 λ ( L ) 1 / 2 ,

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