Abstract

We present a theoretical model that describes accurately the nonlinear phenomenon of optical bistability in silicon-waveguide resonators but remains amenable to analytical results. Using this model, we derive a transcendental equation governing the intensity of a continuous wave transmitted through a Fabry-Perot resonator formed using a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. This equation reveals a dual role of free carriers in the formation of optical bistability in silicon. First, it shows that free-carrier absorption results in a saturation of the transmitted intensity. Second, the free-carrier dispersion and the thermo-optic effect may introduce phase shifts far exceeding those resulting from the Kerr effect alone, thus enabling one to achieve optical bistability in ultrashort resonators that are only a few micrometers long. Bistability can occur even when waveguide facets are not coated because natural reflectivity of the silicon-air interface can provide sufficient feedback. We find that it is possible to control the input-output characteristics of silicon-based resonators by changing the free-carrier lifetime using a reverse-biased p-n junction. We show theoretically that such a technique is suitable for realization of electronically assisted optical switching at a fixed input power and it may lead to silicon-based, nanometer-size, optical memories.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and P. Koonath, "Silicon Raman amplifiers, lasers and their applications," in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications V, A. K. Dutta, Y. Ohishi, N. K. Dutta, and J. Moerk, Eds., Proc. SPIE 6014, 21-26 (2005).
  5. R. A. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, "Raman-based silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412-421 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007(1-9) (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 1352-1354 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier," IEICE Electron. Exp. 1, 429-434 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall siliconon-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A.W. Fang, M. J. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 519-525 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 m," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  21. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Renner, M. Krause, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Maximal gain and optimal taper design for Raman amplifiers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Topical Meetings (IPRA 2005), paper JWA3.
  24. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficiency increase of silicon-on-insulator Raman lasers by reduction of free-carrier absorption in tapered waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005), paper CThB1.
  26. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).
  29. J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredd, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, "Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 7682-7688 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 391-393 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. F¨orst, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 m femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  42. D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, "Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-oninsulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 1954-1956 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  44. X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  45. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications," Opt. Express 15, 16604-16644 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. L. Yin and G. P. Agrawal, "Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Solitons in SOI optical waveguides," Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. 2, 769-785 (2008).
  49. C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  50. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3241-3248 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  51. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation," Opt. Lett. 34, 536-538 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.
  53. I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.
  55. S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  56. S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman amplification of optical pulses in silicon waveguides: effects of finite gain bandwidth, pulse width, and chirp," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 17-25 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  57. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  59. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 m pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611-1621 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  61. D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).
  62. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1135-1146 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 12380-12387 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  67. V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  68. G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, "Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 13, 9623-9628 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 341-343 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  70. Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 924-929 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  71. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonliner Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, Boston, 2008).
  72. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, 2003).
  73. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, Boston, 2007).

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007(1-9) (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Solitons in SOI optical waveguides," Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. 2, 769-785 (2008).

2007 (8)

E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 391-393 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1135-1146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 924-929 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredd, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, "Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 7682-7688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications," Opt. Express 15, 16604-16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (16)

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "Carrier-induced optical bistability in silicon ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 31, 341-343 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin and G. P. Agrawal, "Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. F¨orst, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 m femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 12380-12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, "Raman-based silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412-421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (9)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A.W. Fang, M. J. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 519-525 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, "Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 13, 9623-9628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (14)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 m pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611-1621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall siliconon-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett. 29, 2387-2389 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier," IEICE Electron. Exp. 1, 429-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (3)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 1352-1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 m," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman amplification of optical pulses in silicon waveguides: effects of finite gain bandwidth, pulse width, and chirp," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 17-25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation," Opt. Lett. 34, 536-538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3241-3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredd, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, "Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 7682-7688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications," Opt. Express 15, 16604-16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 391-393 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin and G. P. Agrawal, "Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1295-1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

Almeida, V. R.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bhadra, S. K.

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman amplification of optical pulses in silicon waveguides: effects of finite gain bandwidth, pulse width, and chirp," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 17-25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, "Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 13, 9623-9628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Boyraz, O.

Brand, T.

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmeyer, E.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chou, C. Y.

Claps, R.

Cohen, O.

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, A. R.

Dadap, J.

Dadap, J. I.

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, R.

Dimitripoulos, D.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

Dimitropoulos, D.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dissanayake, C.

C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation," Opt. Lett. 34, 536-538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3241-3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Dulkeith, E.

Dumon, P.

Eggleton, B. J.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R.

F¨orst, M.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A.W.

Fathpour, S.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Foster, M. A.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glotz, M.

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Green, W. M. J.

Hak, D.

Han, Y.

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houshmand, B.

Hsieh, I-W.

Indukuri, T.

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, "Raman-based silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412-421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier," IEICE Electron. Exp. 1, 429-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, B. Houshmand, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, "Coupled-mode theory of Raman effect in silicon-oninsulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 28, 1954-1956 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 m," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 1352-1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jhavery, R.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

Jones, R.

Kawanishi, T.

Koonath, P.

Krause, M.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonardis, F. D.

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Solitons in SOI optical waveguides," Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. 2, 769-785 (2008).

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T.

Liang, T. K.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Littler, I.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007(1-9) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

McNab, S. J.

Miyazaki, T.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moormann, C.

Morthier, G.

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

Nunes, L.

Nunes, L. R.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R.

Osgood, R. M.

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

Paniccia, M. J.

Pannicia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Solitons in SOI optical waveguides," Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. 2, 769-785 (2008).

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Space-time modeling of Raman pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2920-2931 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piredd, G.

Premaratne, M.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3241-3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation," Opt. Lett. 34, 536-538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

Priem, G.

Qian, F.

E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieger, G. W.

Rieger, G.W.

G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. W.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Roy, S.

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman amplification of optical pulses in silicon waveguides: effects of finite gain bandwidth, pulse width, and chirp," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 17-25 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rukhlenko, I. D.

C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Continuous-wave Raman amplification in silicon waveguides: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation," Opt. Lett. 34, 536-538 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, C. Dissanayake, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear pulse evolution in silicon waveguides: An approximate analytic approach," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 3241-3248 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

Sakamoto, T.

Sasagawa, K.

Schares, L.

Schmidt, B. S.

Sharping, J. E.

Smandek, B.

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

Tien, E. K.

E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007(1-9) (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. C.

Virk, K. S.

G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

Xia, F.

Xu, Q.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

Yong, J. F.

G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

Yuksek, N. S.

E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and F. D. Leonardis, "Solitons in SOI optical waveguides," Adv. Studies Theor. Phys. 2, 769-785 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, "Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption, and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416-418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Tien, F. Qian, N. S. Yuksek, and O. Boyraz, "Influence of nonlinear loss competition on pulse compression and nonlinear optics in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201115(1-3) (2007).
[CrossRef]

G.W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Yong, "Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 m pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 900-902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhavery, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115(1-3) (2005).

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2745-2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathpour, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, "Energy harvesting in silicon Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061109(1-3) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 1352-1354 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

D. J. Moss, L. Fu, I. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrafast all-optical modulation via two-photon absorption in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Electron. Lett. 41, 320-321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (6)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1149-1153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-oninsulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 938-947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and O. Boyraz, "Raman-based silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 412-421 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear silicon photonics: Analytical tools," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Optimization of Raman amplification in silicon waveguides with finite facet reflectivities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., in press.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon-oninsulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Dissanayake, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Raman-mediated nonlinear interactions in silicon waveguides: Copropagating and counterpropagating pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1372-1374 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Exp. (1)

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of 11 dB fiber-to-fiber gain in a silicon Raman amplifier," IEICE Electron. Exp. 1, 429-434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (3)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, "Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material," Nature 441, 199-202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Pannicia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. K. Liang, L. R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, K. S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. V. Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in silicon waveguides," Opt. Commun. 265, 171-174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, and G. P. Agrawal, "Femtosecond pulse propagation in silicon waveguides: Variational approach and its advantages," Opt. Commun. 281, 5889-5893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (28)

I. D. Rukhlenko, C. Dissanayake, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, "Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 17, 5807-5814 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Analysis of Raman lasing characteristics in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 5703-5710 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A.W. Fang, M. J. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, "Net continuous-wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 519-525 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of directly modulated silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 13, 796-800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 13, 1716-1723 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, and H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Priem, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, "Optical bistability and pulsating behaviour in silicon-on-insulator ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 13, 9623-9628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 5524-5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. F¨orst, "Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 m femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8336-8346 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 12380-12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 1135-1146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu and M. Lipson, "All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 924-929 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Tien, N. S. Yuksek, F. Qian, and O. Boyraz, "Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 6500-6506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Lin, G. Piredd, R. W. Boyd, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, "Optical solitons in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 7682-7688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, "Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications," Opt. Express 15, 16604-16644 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 m," Opt. Express 10, 1305-1313 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, "Observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 1731-1739 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 829-834 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 m pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express 12, 1611-1621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall siliconon-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4094-4102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, "Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering," Opt. Express 12, 4261-4268 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

H. J. Eichler, T. Brand, M. Glotz, and B. Smandek, "Optical nonlinearity and bistability in silicon," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 150, 705-718 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23, 064007(1-9) (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spectroscopy (1)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficient Raman lasing in tapered silicon waveguides," Spectroscopy 21, 26-32 (2006).

Other (7)

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Efficiency increase of silicon-on-insulator Raman lasers by reduction of free-carrier absorption in tapered waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005), paper CThB1.

H. Renner, M. Krause, and E. Brinkmeyer, "Maximal gain and optimal taper design for Raman amplifiers in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Topical Meetings (IPRA 2005), paper JWA3.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, Hoboken, 2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonliner Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, Boston, 2008).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, 2003).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, Boston, 2007).

B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and P. Koonath, "Silicon Raman amplifiers, lasers and their applications," in Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications V, A. K. Dutta, Y. Ohishi, N. K. Dutta, and J. Moerk, Eds., Proc. SPIE 6014, 21-26 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a Fabry-Perot resonator formed by a silicon waveguide of length L and two mirrors (M) with reflectivity ρ 2. The notations used for various electric field amplitudes are also indicated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maximum output intensity in the FCA-induced saturation regime, I max, as a function of amplitude reflectance (left panel) and resonator length (right panel). In the left panel τ=1 ns, and ρ=0.7 in the right panel.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Input-output characteristics of three silicon resonators in the absence of thermo-optic effects for ρ=0.7 and τ=1 ns. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2. In the panel (a), red circles show the resonator transmittance calculated numerically in the presence of TPA. Portions of the curves with negative slopes represent unstable branches. Black arrows show abrupt changes occurring in I tr at the boundaries of unstable regions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The impact of mirror reflectivities (left) and free-carrier lifetime (right) on the bistable characteristics of silicon resonators. In the left panel, τ=1 ns and L=20 µm. In the right panel, τ=0 curves show device behavior in the absence of free-carrier effects. For simulation parameters, see the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Impact of thermo-optic effects on optical bistability in silicon resonators with ρ=0.7. (a) Bistability curves for a 20-µm-long resonator with (red) and without (blue) thermooptic effects for τ=1 ns; (b) bistable behavior for two ultrashort resonators with τ=1 ns; (c) input-output characteristics of a 100-µm-long resonator for three values of τ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Demonstration of optical switching in a silicon resonator by varying τ though an external voltage. Panels (a) and (b) show changes in the bistable characteristics of a silicon resonator as τ changes from 1→2.6→1 ns and 1→0.18→1 ns, respectively. Panel (c) shows hysteresis loop in the I tr-τ domain. The input intensity is fixed at 2 GW/cm2 with ρ=0.7 and L=20 µm.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

± 1 A ± d A ± d z = α 2 + i γ ( 1 + i r ) ( A ± 2 + 2 A ± 2 ) σ 2 ( 1 + i μ ) N ,
N ( z ) = τ β 2 ω ( A ± 4 + A 4 + 4 A ± A 2 ) ,
± 1 I ± d I ± d z = α β ( I ± + 2 I ) ξ r ( I + 2 + I _ 2 + 4 I + I _ ) ,
± d ϕ ± d z = γ ( I ± + 2 I ) ξ i ( I + 2 + I _ 2 + 4 I + I _ ) ,
I + ( z ) = a c o t h ( q z + C 2 ) b , I _ ( z ) = C 1 I + ( z ) ,
ϕ + ( z ) = C 3 + γ [ 𝒥 1 ( z ) + 2 𝒥 2 ( z ) ] ξ i 𝒥 3 ( z ) ,
ϕ ( z ) = C 4 γ [ 𝒥 2 ( z ) + 2 𝒥 1 ( z ) ] + ξ i 𝒥 3 ( z ) ,
𝒥 1 ( z ) = 1 q { b a tan 1 [ I + ( z ) b a ] b a tan 1 [ I + ( z ) b + a ] } ,
2 ( z ) = C 1 q { 1 b + a tan 1 [ I + ( z ) b + a ] 1 b a tan 1 [ I + ( z ) b a ] } ,
3 ( z ) = C 1 2 q { 4 ( b + a ) C 1 b + a ln G + ( z ) 4 ( b a ) C 1 b a ln G ( z ) }
+ a q ln [ sinh ( qz + C 2 ) ] 2 a q C 1 2 b 2 a 2 ln I + ( z ) b z ,
E + ( 0 ) = ( 1 ρ 2 ) 1 2 E i n + ρ E ( 0 ) ,
E ( L ) = ρ E + ( L ) .
I tr = ( 1 ρ 2 ) I + ( L ) .
I in = I + ( 0 ) + ρ 2 I ( 0 ) 2 ρ C 1 cos Δ ϕ 1 ρ 2 ,
C 1 = I + ( L ) I ( L ) = ρ 2 ( 1 ρ 2 ) 2 I tr 2 .
C 2 = coth 1 { 1 a [ I tr 2 ( 1 ρ 2 ) 2 + b ] } q L ,
Δ ϕ N L = 3 γ [ 𝒥 1 ( L ) + 𝒥 2 ( L ) 𝒥 1 ( 0 ) 𝒥 2 ( 0 ) ] 2 ξ i [ 𝒥 3 ( L ) 𝒥 3 ( 0 ) ] .
Δ n 0 ( z ) = κ Δ T ( z ) ,
ρ m A eff Δ z C Δ T ( z ) ϑ = β [ I + 2 ( z ) + I 2 ( z ) + 4 I + ( z ) I ( z ) ] A eff Δ z .
Δ ϕ NL T = 2 k 0 L Δ n 0 ( z ) d z = 2 k κ ϑ β ρ m C [ 3 ( L ) 3 ( 0 ) ] ,
I tr ( e α L p 2 e α L 1 p 2 ) 2 { 1 + 4 p 2 ( e α L p 2 e α L ) 2 sin 2 [ β 0 L + 3 γ I tr L eff ( p 2 + e α L ) 2 ( 1 p 2 ) ] } = I in ,
q L = coth 1 { 1 a [ I max 2 ( 1 p 2 ) 2 + b ] } .
I max ( 1 ρ ρ ) [ 1 2 3 ξ r L coth 1 ( 1 + 2 ρ 2 3 ρ 2 ) ] 1 2 .

Metrics