Abstract

Magnesium/silicon carbide (Mg/SiC) multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% to 50% for wavelengths in the 25 to 50 nm wavelength range. However many applications, for example solar telescopes and ultrafast studies using high harmonic generation sources, desire larger bandwidths than provided by high reflectivity Mg/SiC multilayers. We investigate introducing a third material, Scandium, to create a tri-material Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer allowing an increase the bandwidth while maintaining high reflectivity.

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  1. N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).
  3. H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Aquila, F. Salmassi, and E. Gullikson, “Metrologies for the phase characterization of attosecond extreme ultraviolet optics,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 455–457 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. I. Larruquert, “Reflectance enhancement with subquarterwave multilayers of highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1406–1414 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. I. Larruquert, “General theory of sub-quarterwave multilayers with highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2617–2627 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. I. Larruquert, “Reflectance enhancement in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x rays by means of multilayers with more than two materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(2), 391–397 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 384–390 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).
  12. Y. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum-ultraviolet interval of 35-50nm,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 771–773 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. E. M. Gullikson, “X-ray interactions with matter” http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .
  15. Yu. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Yu. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(2), 298 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).
  17. J. H. Underwood and T. W. Barbee., “Layered synthetic microstructures as Bragg diffractors for X rays and extreme ultraviolet: theory and predicted performance,” Appl. Opt. 20(17), 3027–3034 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, “Downhill Simplex Method in Multidimensions” in Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing Third Edition (Cambridge University Press, 2007) pp.502–507.

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M.-F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 384–390 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

J. I. Larruquert, “Reflectance enhancement with subquarterwave multilayers of highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(6), 1406–1414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Larruquert, “General theory of sub-quarterwave multilayers with highly absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2617–2627 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).

1981 (1)

Aquila, A.

Aquila, A. L.

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Baker, S. L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Barbee, T. W.

Boher, P.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).

Bridou, F.

Bukreeva, I. N.

V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delmotte, F.

Dollar, F.

Dollar, F. J.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, A. I.

Fedotov, V. Yu.

Gautier, J.

Golub, L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Gullikson, E.

Gullikson, E. M.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hennet, L.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).

Houdy, P.

P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).

Ichimaru, S.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jérome, A.

Kaufmann, B. B.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Kondratenko, V. V.

Kozhevnikov, V. I.

V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larruquert, J. I.

Levashov, V. E.

Levesque, J.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Mairesse, Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).

Ohchi, T.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Y. P.

Pershin, Yu. P.

Popov, N. L.

Ravet, M.-F.

Robinson, J. C.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Roulliay, M.

Salmassi, F.

Seely, J. F.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Yu. A. Uspenskii, J. F. Seely, N. L. Popov, A. V. Vinogradov, Yu. P. Pershin, and V. V. Kondratenko, “Efficient method for the determination of extreme ultraviolet optical constants in reactive materials: application to scandium and titanium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(2), 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, O.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Spiller, E.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Takenaka, H.

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Uspenskii, Y. A.

Uspenskii, Yu. A.

Villeneuve, D. M.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Windt, D. L.

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

Ziegler, E.

V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

Appl. Opt. (2)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E=50-30000 eV, Z=1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54(2), 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE (1)

E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the Advanced Light Source,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies V, E. A. Dobisz ed, Proc. SPIE 4343, 363 (2001).

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

H. Takenaka, S. Ichimaru, T. Ohchi, and E. M. Gullikson, “Soft-X-ray reflectivity and heat resistance of SiC/Mg multilayer,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 144–147, 1047–1049 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Nat. Phys. (1)

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Yu. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nat. Phys. 2(11), 781–786 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A (1)

V. I. Kozhevnikov, I. N. Bukreeva, and E. Ziegler, “Design of X-ray supermirrors,” Nuc. Inst. &, Methods in Physics Research A 460, 424–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Soufli, D. L. Windt, J. C. Robinson, S. L. Baker, E. Spiller, F. J. Dollar, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, B. Kjornrattanawanich, J. F. Seely, and L. Golub, “Development and testing of EUV multilayer coatings for the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5901, 59010M–1 (2005).

SPIE (1)

P. Boher, L. Hennet, and P. Houdy, “Three materials soft X-ray mirrors: theory and application,” SPIE 1345, 198–212 (1990).

Other (2)

E. M. Gullikson, “X-ray interactions with matter” http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants .

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, “Downhill Simplex Method in Multidimensions” in Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing Third Edition (Cambridge University Press, 2007) pp.502–507.

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