Abstract

Optical-quality, melt processable thick films of a conjugated polymer blend containing poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-(phenylene vinylene)) (MEH-PPV), a C60 derivative (PCBM) and a plasticizer (1,2-di-iso-octylphthalate) have been developed and their nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties have been investigated. These blend materials exhibited strong optical limiting characteristics in the near infrared region (750-900 nm), with broad temporal dynamic range spanning femtosecond to nanosecond pulse widths. The dispersion of the optical limiting figure-of-merit of the MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP blend shows a peak near the wavelength of the MEH-PPV cation, indicating an important role of one-photon and two-photon induced charge transfer in the nonlinear absorption response.

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2009

2008

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Chou, K. F. Lin, and D. C. Wang, “Miscibility and luminescence properties of MEH-PPV/DPO-PPV polyblends,” J. Polym. Res. 13(1), 79–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Nelson, “Diffusion-limited recombination in polymer-fullerene blends and its influence on photocurrent collection,” Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155209–155218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Moses, A. Dogariu, and A. J. Heeger, “Mechanism of carrier generation and recombination in conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 116(1-3), 19–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(2), 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, D. Vacar, and A. J. Heeger, “Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of the excited state in a soluble derivative of poly(phenylene vinylene): Origin of the bimolecular decay,” Phys. Rev. B 58(16), 10218–10224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Samoc, M. Samoc, M. Woodruff, and B. Luther-Davies, “Tuning the properties of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) for use in all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1241–1243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Smilowitz and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced absorption from triplet excitations in poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) oriented by gel-processing in polyethylene,” Synth. Met. 48(2), 193–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Kato, T. Kodama, and T. Shida, “Electronic absorption spectra of the radical anions and cations of fullerenes: C60 and C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180(5), 446–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

1967

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. L.

Bakulin, A. A.

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banishoeib, F.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Bedworth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bertho, S.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Brabec, C. J.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brant, M.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brzozowski, L.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, H. L.

H. L. Chou, K. F. Lin, and D. C. Wang, “Miscibility and luminescence properties of MEH-PPV/DPO-PPV polyblends,” J. Polym. Res. 13(1), 79–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christiaans, M. P. T.

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S.-J.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cleij, T. J.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cozzuol, M.

De Schepper, L.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeRosa, M.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

D. Moses, A. Dogariu, and A. J. Heeger, “Mechanism of carrier generation and recombination in conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 116(1-3), 19–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, D. Vacar, and A. J. Heeger, “Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of the excited state in a soluble derivative of poly(phenylene vinylene): Origin of the bimolecular decay,” Phys. Rev. B 58(16), 10218–10224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, T. K.

Drori, T.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elias, W. E.

Gadisa, A.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Goris, L.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haenen, K.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hales, J. M.

He, G. S.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization with a nonlinear absorptive fiber system,” Appl. Opt. 36(15), 3387–3392 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

D. Moses, A. Dogariu, and A. J. Heeger, “Mechanism of carrier generation and recombination in conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 116(1-3), 19–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, D. Vacar, and A. J. Heeger, “Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of the excited state in a soluble derivative of poly(phenylene vinylene): Origin of the bimolecular decay,” Phys. Rev. B 58(16), 10218–10224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Smilowitz and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced absorption from triplet excitations in poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) oriented by gel-processing in polyethylene,” Synth. Met. 48(2), 193–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heikal, A. A.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Hod'akova, L.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollins, R. C.

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(2), 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holt, J.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzer, W.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H.-H.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. Y.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.-I.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

T. Kato, T. Kodama, and T. Shida, “Electronic absorption spectra of the radical anions and cations of fullerenes: C60 and C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180(5), 446–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Kodama, T.

T. Kato, T. Kodama, and T. Shida, “Electronic absorption spectra of the radical anions and cations of fullerenes: C60 and C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180(5), 446–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

Kraabel, B.

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kroon, J. M.

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumacheva, E.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuroshima, S.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. W.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. Y. S.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. F.

H. L. Chou, K. F. Lin, and D. C. Wang, “Miscibility and luminescence properties of MEH-PPV/DPO-PPV polyblends,” J. Polym. Res. 13(1), 79–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-C.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Lutsen, L.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manca, J. V.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5(9), 1980–1989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martyanov, D. S.

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBranch, D.

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

D. Moses, A. Dogariu, and A. J. Heeger, “Mechanism of carrier generation and recombination in conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 116(1-3), 19–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Ndobe, A.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, “Diffusion-limited recombination in polymer-fullerene blends and its influence on photocurrent collection,” Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155209–155218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nesladek, M.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oosterbaan, W. D.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paraschuk, D. Y.

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penzkofer, A.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. M. Hales, M. Cozzuol, T. E. O. Screen, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, “Metalloporphyrin polymer with temporally agile, broadband nonlinear absorption for optical limiting in the near infrared,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18478–18488 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poruba, A.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, J. D. Bhawalkar, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization with a nonlinear absorptive fiber system,” Appl. Opt. 36(15), 3387–3392 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pudavar, H. E.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rich, T. C.

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Röckel, H.

Rumi, M.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Sargent, E. H.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saricftci, N. S.

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Screen, T. E. O.

Sheng, C. X.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shida, T.

T. Kato, T. Kodama, and T. Shida, “Electronic absorption spectra of the radical anions and cations of fullerenes: C60 and C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180(5), 446–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Smilowitz and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced absorption from triplet excitations in poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) oriented by gel-processing in polyethylene,” Synth. Met. 48(2), 193–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Su, W.

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, K.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thayumanavan, S.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tillmann, H.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, D. W.

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L.

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vacar, D.

A. Dogariu, D. Vacar, and A. J. Heeger, “Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of the excited state in a soluble derivative of poly(phenylene vinylene): Origin of the bimolecular decay,” Phys. Rev. B 58(16), 10218–10224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Hal, P. A.

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Severen, I.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vanderzande, D.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vandewal, K.

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, P.

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. C.

H. L. Chou, K. F. Lin, and D. C. Wang, “Miscibility and luminescence properties of MEH-PPV/DPO-PPV polyblends,” J. Polym. Res. 13(1), 79–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weder, C.

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wienk, M. M.

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, M.

Wu, X. L.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I. Y. S. Lee, Z. Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22(24), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

Wudl, F.

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, L. X.

Zhang, J.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, and J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Vandewal, A. Gadisa, W. D. Oosterbaan, S. Bertho, F. Banishoeib, I. Van Severen, L. Lutsen, T. J. Cleij, D. Vanderzande, and J. V. Manca, “The relation between open-circuit voltage and the onset of photocurrent generation by charge-transfer absorption in polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(14), 2064–2070 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Cha, N. S. Saricftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Goris, A. Poruba, L. Hod'akova, M. Vanecek, K. Haenen, M. Nesladek, P. Wagner, D. Vanderzande, L. De Schepper, and J. V. Manca, “Observation of the subgap optical absorption in polymer-fullerene blend solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 052113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, “Excited-state properties of C60,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(6), 501–504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kato, T. Kodama, and T. Shida, “Electronic absorption spectra of the radical anions and cations of fullerenes: C60 and C70,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 180(5), 446–450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4(2), 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. S. He, C. Weder, P. Smith, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical power limiting and stabilization based on a novel polymer compound,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 2279–2285 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Lin, J. Zhang, L. Brzozowski, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, “Nonlinear optical figures of merit of processible composite of poly(2-methoxy,5-(2'-(ethyl)hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) and poly(methyl methacrylate),” J. Appl. Phys. 91(1), 522–524 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

S.-J. Chung, G. S. Maciel, H. E. Pudavar, T.-C. Lin, G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, D. W. Lee, and J.-I. Jin, “Two-photon properties and excitation dynamics of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives carrying phenylanthracene and branched alkoxy pendents,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106(33), 7512–7520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

P. A. van Hal, M. P. T. Christiaans, M. M. Wienk, J. M. Kroon, and R. A. J. Janssen, “Photoinduced electron transfer from conjugated polymers to TiO,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4352–4359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Bakulin, D. S. Martyanov, D. Y. Paraschuk, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and P. H. M. van Loosdrecht, “Ultrafast charge photogeneration dynamics in ground-state charge-transfer complexes based on conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112(44), 13730–13737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Polym. Res.

H. L. Chou, K. F. Lin, and D. C. Wang, “Miscibility and luminescence properties of MEH-PPV/DPO-PPV polyblends,” J. Polym. Res. 13(1), 79–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. W. Tutt and A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature 356(6366), 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, Z. Y. Hu, I. Y. S. Lee, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. Thayumanavan, and X. L. Wu, “Two-photon and higher-order absorptions and optical limiting properties of bis-donor substituted conjugated organic chromophores,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 225–243 (1999).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

B. Kraabel, D. McBranch, N. S. Sariciftci, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Ultrafast spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer from semiconducting polymers to C60,” Phys. Rev. B 50(24), 18543–18552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, D. Vacar, and A. J. Heeger, “Picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of the excited state in a soluble derivative of poly(phenylene vinylene): Origin of the bimolecular decay,” Phys. Rev. B 58(16), 10218–10224 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, “Diffusion-limited recombination in polymer-fullerene blends and its influence on photocurrent collection,” Phys. Rev. B 67(15), 155209–155218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Drori, C. X. Sheng, A. Ndobe, S. Singh, J. Holt, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Below-gap excitation of π-conjugated polymer-Fullerene blends: implications for bulk organic heterojunction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(3), 037401–037404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Geusic, S. Singh, D. W. Tipping, and T. C. Rich, “3-photon stepwise optical limiting in silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(19), 1126–1128 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Jiang, M. DeRosa, W. Su, M. Brant, D. McLean, and T. Bunning, “Polymer host materials for optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 3472, 157–162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, and F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met.

D. Moses, A. Dogariu, and A. J. Heeger, “Mechanism of carrier generation and recombination in conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 116(1-3), 19–22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Smilowitz and A. J. Heeger, “Photoinduced absorption from triplet excitations in poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) oriented by gel-processing in polyethylene,” Synth. Met. 48(2), 193–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of gilch-type and horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. W. Perry, Organic and metal-containing reverse saturable absorbers for optical limiters (CRC Press INC, Boca Raton, FL, 1997).

J. Shinar, Z. V. Vardeny, and Z. H. Kafafi, eds., Optical and electronic properties of fullerenes and fullerene-based materials (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of one- and two-photon induced excited state and charge carrier absorption in MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP blends and the chemical structures of constituent compounds. The states illustrated represent only the MEH-PPV related electronic states in the system. The S symbols represent singlet states of MEH-PPV and MEH-PPV–PCBM charge transfer complex and the D symbols represent doublet states of the MEH-PPV radical cation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Left) Linear absorption spectra of melt-processed 25-μm thick MEH-PPV:DOP film (black) and MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP (red) film and drop-cast 10 μm thick PMMA:PCBM:DOP (blue). Inset: Linear absorption spectra of spin-coated thin films of MEH-PPV:DOP (black, 100 nm), MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP (red, 100 nm), and PMMA:PCBM:DOP (blue, 1.7 μm). (Right) Transmission optical microscopic images at 40X magnification of 25-μm thick melt-processed films of (a) neat MEH-PPV, (b) MEH-PPV:DOP, and (c) MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical limiting data and numerical simulations for the 25 μm thick MEH-PPV:DOP and MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP films. Femtosecond-pulsed (HW1/e ~65 fs) OL on MEH-PPV:DOP (a) and MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP (b) at 810 nm. Nanosecond-pulsed (HW1/e ~4 ns) OL on MEH-PPV:DOP. (c) and MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP (d) at 830 nm. Parameters for the numerical simulations are described in the text. Dashed lines mark the onset of damage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength-dependence of FOM for nanosecond-pulse OL of 25 μm thick films of MEH-PPV:DOP (black) and MEH-PPV:PCBM:DOP (red) blends.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and nonlinear optical properties as well as optical limiting characteristics of blends examined.

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