Abstract

Genuine U.S. Federal Reserve Notes have a consistent, two-component intrinsic fluorescence lifetime. This allows for detection of counterfeit paper money because of its significant differences in fluorescence lifetime when compared to genuine paper money. We used scanning two-photon laser excitation and the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) method to sample a ~4 mm2 region. Three types of counterfeit samples were tested. Four out of the nine counterfeit samples fit to a one-component decay. Five out of nine counterfeit samples fit to a two-component model, but are identified as counterfeit due to significant deviations in the longer lifetime component compared to genuine bills.

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References

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2008 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

Becker, W.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benndorf, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D. K.

Biskup, C.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakarova, K.

Chia, T. H.

Colombo, C.

Comelli, D.

Cubeddu, R.

D’Andrea, C.

D. Comelli, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, C. Colombo, and L. Toniolo, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy as tools for nondestructive analysis of works of art,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2175–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D’Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Time-resolved fluorescence imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(9), R61–R76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eliceiri, K. W.

Fan, C. H.

French, P. M.

K. Suhling, P. M. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanley, Q. S.

Hink, M. A.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jovin, T. M.

König, K.

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levene, M. J.

Madolev, T.

Melton, L. A.

Ni, T. Q.

Phillips, D.

K. Suhling, P. M. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rusanov, V.

Spencer, D. D.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suhling, K.

K. Suhling, P. M. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, “Development of a simple and non-destructive examination for counterfeit coins using acoustic characteristics,” Forensic Sci. Int. 177(1), e5–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D’Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Time-resolved fluorescence imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(9), R61–R76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toniolo, L.

Valentini, G.

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, J. G.

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, A.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (4)

Forensic Sci. Int. (1)

M. Suzuki, “Development of a simple and non-destructive examination for counterfeit coins using acoustic characteristics,” Forensic Sci. Int. 177(1), e5–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Cubeddu, D. Comelli, C. D’Andrea, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, “Time-resolved fluorescence imaging in biology and medicine,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(9), R61–R76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

W. Becker, A. Bergmann, M. A. Hink, K. König, K. Benndorf, and C. Biskup, “Fluorescence lifetime imaging by time-correlated single-photon counting,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 63(1), 58–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

K. Suhling, P. M. French, and D. Phillips, “Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4(1), 13–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. Becker, The bh TCSPC Handbook (Becker & Hickl, 2008).

R. Judson, and R. Porter, “Estimating the worldwide volume of counterfeit U.S. currency: data and extrapolation,” FEDs Working Paper No. 2003–52 (2003).

J. Cameron, J. Marengo, R. Judson, and J. Pruiksma, “The use and counterfeiting of United States currency abroad, part 3,” presented to United States Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury, Sept. 2006.

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