Abstract

We present two new techniques exploiting a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor to characterize the optical self-focusing effect of nonlinear materials. We demonstrate that the defocus Zernike coefficient (C 5) can be used to quantify nonlinear optical properties of materials. In the first technique proposed, the wavefront of a collimated laser beam transmitted through a nonlinear sample is analyzed with different irradiance values. In the second technique,instead of conventional detectors, a Hartmann-Shack sensor is used in a Z-scan setup. The methods are demonstrated by measuring the nonlinear refractive indices of CS 2 and Quartz, using femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers at 76MHz and 1KHz repetition rate.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. de Araujo and A. S. L. Gomes, "Nonlinear optical Kerr coefficients of disordered media," Phys. Rev. A 57, 2037-2040 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ /104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of pKa of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 330, 347-353 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, "One photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution," Opt. Express 16, 19244-19252 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near- and far-field second-harmonic imaging of quasi-phase-matching crystals," J. Microsc. 202, 244-249 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]
  16. B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE. 4964, 24-32 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Bueno, B. Vohnsen, L. Roso, and P. Artal, "Temporal wavefront stability of an ultrafast high-power laser beam," Appl. Opt. 48, 770-777, (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, "One photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution," Opt. Express 16, 19244-19252 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE. 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near- and far-field second-harmonic imaging of quasi-phase-matching crystals," J. Microsc. 202, 244-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of pKa of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 330, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. E. de Araujo and A. S. L. Gomes, "Nonlinear optical Kerr coefficients of disordered media," Phys. Rev. A 57, 2037-2040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ /104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. Bueno, B. Vohnsen, L. Roso, and P. Artal, "Temporal wavefront stability of an ultrafast high-power laser beam," Appl. Opt. 48, 770-777, (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE. 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near- and far-field second-harmonic imaging of quasi-phase-matching crystals," J. Microsc. 202, 244-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bueno, J.

Campbell, M.

Chen, P.

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Creekmore, S.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, "One photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution," Opt. Express 16, 19244-19252 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of pKa of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 330, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. de Araujo and A. S. L. Gomes, "Nonlinear optical Kerr coefficients of disordered media," Phys. Rev. A 57, 2037-2040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of pKa of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 330, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W.

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, D. L.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filho, E. L.

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, "One photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution," Opt. Express 16, 19244-19252 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of pKa of organic molecules using third-order nonlinear optics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 330, 347-353 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. de Araujo and A. S. L. Gomes, "Nonlinear optical Kerr coefficients of disordered media," Phys. Rev. A 57, 2037-2040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ /104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

Iglesias, I.

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE. 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L.

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Min, N.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mott, A.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oulianov, D. A.

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

Rativa, D.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, and A. S. L. Gomes, "One photon nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution," Opt. Express 16, 19244-19252 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Filho, C. B. de Araújo, D. Rativa, and R. E. de Araujo, "Thermally managed eclipse Z-scan," Opt. Express 15, 1712-1717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rentzepis, P. M.

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Roso, L.

Said, A. A.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ /104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ /104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vohnsen, B.

J. Bueno, B. Vohnsen, L. Roso, and P. Artal, "Temporal wavefront stability of an ultrafast high-power laser beam," Appl. Opt. 48, 770-777, (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, "Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with adaptive optical wavefront correction," Proc. SPIE. 4964, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near- and far-field second-harmonic imaging of quasi-phase-matching crystals," J. Microsc. 202, 244-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K.

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, "Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2," Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and L. Kassab, "Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of lead-germanium oxide amorphous films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231906-231909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yang, J. Seo, S. Creekmore, D. Temple, A. Mott, N. Min, K. Yoo, S. Kim, and S. Jung, "Distortions in Z-scan spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 19-21 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Chen, D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, and P. M. Rentzepis, "Two-dimensional Z scan for arbitrary beam shape and sample thickness," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 7043-7050 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc.

D. Rativa, A. S. L. Gomes, S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, D. L. Farkas, and R. E. de Araujo, "Nonlinear Excitation of Tryptophan Emission Enhanced by Silver Nanoparticles," J. Fluoresc. 18, 1151-1155 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Vohnsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near- and far-field second-harmonic imaging of quasi-phase-matching crystals," J. Microsc. 202, 244-249 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Time resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 1009-1017 (1994).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up for HS sensing. A half-wave plate (λ/2) and a polarizer are used to adjust the laser intensity. T1 and T2 are Keplerian telescopes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

HS Z-scan experimental set-up.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Zernike coefficients used to describe the wavefront aberrations induced for different intensities: (a) Ia =3.0GW/cm 2, (b) Ib =4.5GW/cm 2, (c) Ic =5.5GW/cm 2 and (d) Id=6.0GW/cm 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of the defocus Zernike coefficient: (a) induced in a 2mm-thick cuvette CS2 sample (squares) and a 10mm-thick quartz sample (circles) at 1KHz, (b) in a 2mm CS2 sample using 1KHz (Non-thermal) and 76MHz (Thermo-optical) pulse repetition.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) HS Z-scan and (b) Z-scan signature for a CS 2 sample (2mm thick cuvette) using different intensities: Ia =120GW/cm 2 (▫), Ib =6.1GW/cm 2 (○), Ic =0.5GW/cm 2 (+) and Id =0.2GW/cm 2 (). The case of Ia has been excluded from plot (a) since the beam diverges beyond the entrance pupil of the HS.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Malacara Zernike index scheme

Equations (2)

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Δ ϕ NL ( t ) = ( 2 π λ ) n 2 I ( r , t ) L eff
n 2 ( r , t ) = λ 2 π I ( r , t ) L eff C 5

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