Abstract

We report on the development of an imaging system capable of combined ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging based on a fast-scanning single-element 25-MHz ultrasound transducer and a unique light-delivery system. The system is capable of 20 ultrasound frames per second and slower photoacoustic frame rates limited by laser pulse-repetition rates. Laser and ultrasound pulses are interlaced for co-registration of photoacoustic and ultrasound images. In vivo imaging of a human finger permits ultrasonic visualization of vessel structures and speckle changes indicative of blood flow, while overlaid photoacoustic images highlight some small vessels that are not clear from the ultrasound scan. Photoacoustic images provide optical absorption contrast co-registered in the structural and blood-flow context of ultrasound with high-spatial resolution and may prove important for clinical diagnostics and basic science of the microvasculature.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. M. Xu and L. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006), doi:.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Zhang, J. Laufer, and P. Beard, “Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues,” Appl. Opt. 47(4), 561–577 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Xu and L. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adamson, S. L.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P.

Bitton, R.

Cherin, E.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, F. S.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenz, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harasiewicz, K. A.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaeger, M.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knapik, D. A.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J.

Lemor, R.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehi, J.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederhauser, J. J.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

Song, L.

Starkoski, B. G.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsytsarev, V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

M. Xu and L. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zemp, L. Song, R. Bitton, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Realtime photoacoustic microscopy in vivo with a 30-MHz ultrasound array transducer,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7915–7928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, P.

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zan, L.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemp, R.

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, E.

Zhang, H. F.

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M. Y.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y. Q.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

J. J. Niederhauser, M. Jaeger, R. Lemor, P. Weber, and M. Frenz, “Combined ultrasound and optoacoustic system for real-time high-contrast vascular imaging in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 24(4), 436–440 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Probl.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation on the noninvasive photoacoustic imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in subcutaneous vasculature in vivo,” Inverse Probl. 23(6), S113–S122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. Hu, K. Maslov, V. Tsytsarev, and L. V. Wang, “Functional transcranial brain imaging by optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 040503 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci.

L. Li, H. F. Zhang, R. Zemp, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Simultaneous imaging of a lacZ-marked tumor and microvasculature morphology in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 1(02), 207–215 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. Xu and L. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 041101 (2006), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Voice coil (VC) US/PA scanning system and cross section of Light Delivery Probe (LDP). Incident light from laser (L) is diverted towards the reflective cone (R) by the prism (P). Ultrasound transducer (T) is mounted inside the LDP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Combined ultrasound-photoacoustic system block diagram. MC: Motor Controller; DG: Delay Generator; DIO: Digital Input Output card; L: Laser; T: Ultrasound Transducer; P/R: Ultrasound Pulser/Receiver; VGA: Variable Gain Amplifier; OSC: Oscilloscope; Q-Sw: Q-Switch; FL: Flashlamp; EOS: End of Scan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of a carbon fiber at the focal position: (a) US (Log Scale); (b) PA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

US and PA images of human finger (a) US image; (b) PA image, arrows indicate effective photoacoustic imaging depth; (c) Combined image, arrows indicate where large vessels are seen only in part in PA data

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Similar structures in movie frame ((a), (Media 1) and a combined image (b)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of seeing vessel with PA (Green Arrow in (b)) that is not visible in US in (a)

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