Abstract

The eastern South Pacific (ESP) oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a permanent hydrographic feature located directly off the coasts of northern Chile and Peru. The ESP OMZ reaches from coastal waters out to thousands of kilometers offshore, and can extend from the near surface to depths greater than 700 m. Oxygen minimum zones support unique microbial assemblages and play an important role in marine elemental cycles. We present results from two autonomous profiling floats that provide nine months of time-series data on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and particulate backscattering in the ESP OMZ. We observed consistently elevated backscattering signals within low-oxygen waters, which appear to be the result of enhanced microbial biomass in the OMZ intermediate waters. We also observed secondary chlorophyll a fluorescence maxima within low-oxygen waters when the upper limit of the OMZ penetrated the base of the photic zone. We suggest that autonomous profiling floats are useful tools for monitoring physical dynamics of OMZs and the microbial response to perturbations in these areas.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (2)

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

2008 (8)

H. Stevens and O. Ulloa, “Bacterial diversity in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 10(5), 1244–1259 (2008) (doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01539.x).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Karstensen, L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, “Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans,” Prog. Oceanogr. 77(4), 331–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Paulmier and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the modern ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 80(3–4), 113–128 (2008) (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2008.08.001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sackmann, M. J. Perry, and C. C. Eriksen, “Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 5, 2839–2865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Cuevas and C. E. Morales, “Nanoheterotroph grazing on bacteria and cyanobacteria in oxic and suboxic waters in coastal upwelling areas off northern Chile,” J. Plankton Res. 28(4), 385–397 (2006) (doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi124).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. J. Helly and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(9), 1159–1168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

2001 (2)

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, “Optical and physical variability on time scales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996 - June 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9435–9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

2000 (1)

R. Goericke, R. J. Olson, and A. Shalapyonok, “A novel niche for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 47(7), 1183–1205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174 (1994) (doi:10.1117/12.190060).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29(3), 383–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. Kamykowski and S.-J. Zentara, “Hypoxia in the world ocean as recorded in the historical data set,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1861–1874 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. M. Lewitus and W. W. Broenkow, “Intermediate depth pigment maxima in oxygen minimum zones,” Deep-Sea Res. 32(9), 1101–1115 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Observations of light scattering functions in two oceanic areas,” Deep-Sea Res. 31(3), 295–290 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Pak, L. A. Codispoti, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the intermediate particle maxima associated with oxygen-poor water off Western South America,” Deep-Sea Res. 27(10), 783–797 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. H.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arnerich, T.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belmar, L.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Bergmann, T.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

Boss, E.

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

Braker, G.

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandes, J. A.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Bravo, L.

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

Brickley, P.

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brocandel, O.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W. W.

A. M. Lewitus and W. W. Broenkow, “Intermediate depth pigment maxima in oxygen minimum zones,” Deep-Sea Res. 32(9), 1101–1115 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174 (1994) (doi:10.1117/12.190060).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Gonzalez, M.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Castro-González, M.

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, G. C.

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, “Optical and physical variability on time scales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996 - June 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9435–9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, J. P.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Claustre, H.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Codispoti, L. A.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Pak, L. A. Codispoti, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the intermediate particle maxima associated with oxygen-poor water off Western South America,” Deep-Sea Res. 27(10), 783–797 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, L. A.

L. A. Cuevas and C. E. Morales, “Nanoheterotroph grazing on bacteria and cyanobacteria in oxic and suboxic waters in coastal upwelling areas off northern Chile,” J. Plankton Res. 28(4), 385–397 (2006) (doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi124).
[CrossRef]

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

De Souza, S. N.

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Devol, A. H.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Diaz, R.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T.

T. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29(3), 383–413 (1991).
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Dickey, T. D.

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, “Optical and physical variability on time scales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996 - June 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9435–9453 (2001).
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Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174 (1994) (doi:10.1117/12.190060).
[CrossRef]

D'Silva, C.

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eissler, Y.

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, C. C.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sackmann, M. J. Perry, and C. C. Eriksen, “Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 5, 2839–2865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Escribano, R.

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Farias, L.

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Farías, L.

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Flagg, C.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, S. A.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friederich, G. E.

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fuenzalida, R.

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

Galan, A.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Galán, A.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

Garcés-Vargas, J.

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

Garcon, V.

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, W. D.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garfield, P. C.

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gaurin, S.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

George, M. D.

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glover, H.

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goericke, R.

R. Goericke, R. J. Olson, and A. Shalapyonok, “A novel niche for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 47(7), 1183–1205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gundersen, J. S.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hakvoort, J. H. M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174 (1994) (doi:10.1117/12.190060).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, D.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helly, J. J.

J. J. Helly and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(9), 1159–1168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hovdenes, J.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, C.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. C.

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamykowski, D.

D. Kamykowski and S.-J. Zentara, “Hypoxia in the world ocean as recorded in the historical data set,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1861–1874 (1990).
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Karstensen, J.

J. Karstensen, L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, “Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans,” Prog. Oceanogr. 77(4), 331–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khripounoff, A.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kortzinger, A.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kullenberg, G.

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Kullenberg, “Observations of light scattering functions in two oceanic areas,” Deep-Sea Res. 31(3), 295–290 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M. D.

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuypers, M. M. M.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

Lange, C.

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

Lavik, G.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

Lavin, P.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Lee, C. M.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Levin, L. A.

J. J. Helly and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(9), 1159–1168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

Lewitus, A. M.

A. M. Lewitus and W. W. Broenkow, “Intermediate depth pigment maxima in oxygen minimum zones,” Deep-Sea Res. 32(9), 1101–1115 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Manghnani, V.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohrholz, V.

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molina, V.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Morales, C. E.

L. A. Cuevas and C. E. Morales, “Nanoheterotroph grazing on bacteria and cyanobacteria in oxic and suboxic waters in coastal upwelling areas off northern Chile,” J. Plankton Res. 28(4), 385–397 (2006) (doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi124).
[CrossRef]

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, J. M.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naqvi, S. W. A.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Narvekar, P. V.

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

R. Goericke, R. J. Olson, and A. Shalapyonok, “A novel niche for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 47(7), 1183–1205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Packard, T. Z.

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paerl, H. W.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Pak, H.

H. Pak, L. A. Codispoti, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the intermediate particle maxima associated with oxygen-poor water off Western South America,” Deep-Sea Res. 27(10), 783–797 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Paulmier, A.

A. Paulmier and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the modern ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 80(3–4), 113–128 (2008) (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2008.08.001).
[CrossRef]

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

Perry, M. J.

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sackmann, M. J. Perry, and C. C. Eriksen, “Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 5, 2839–2865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prosperie, L.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quiñones, R. A.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, S.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Rey, F.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riser, S.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

Ronning, C.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz-Pino, D.

A. Paulmier and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the modern ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 80(3–4), 113–128 (2008) (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2008.08.001).
[CrossRef]

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sackmann, B. S.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sackmann, M. J. Perry, and C. C. Eriksen, “Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 5, 2839–2865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santibanez, F.

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Sathyendranath, S.

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schimanski, J.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W.

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

Shalapyonok, A.

R. Goericke, R. J. Olson, and A. Shalapyonok, “A novel niche for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 47(7), 1183–1205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. L.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, S.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spinrad, R. W.

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sprintall, J.

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangelmayer, A.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, H.

H. Stevens and O. Ulloa, “Bacterial diversity in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 10(5), 1244–1259 (2008) (doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01539.x).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Stramma, L.

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Karstensen, L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, “Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans,” Prog. Oceanogr. 77(4), 331–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Strutton, P. G.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swift, D.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tengberg, A.

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thamdrup, B.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

H. Stevens and O. Ulloa, “Bacterial diversity in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 10(5), 1244–1259 (2008) (doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01539.x).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Visbeck, M.

J. Karstensen, L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, “Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans,” Prog. Oceanogr. 77(4), 331–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, B. B.

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wishner, K.

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woebken, D.

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinari, T.

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Zaneveld, J. R.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

H. Pak, L. A. Codispoti, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the intermediate particle maxima associated with oxygen-poor water off Western South America,” Deep-Sea Res. 27(10), 783–797 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zentara, S.-J.

D. Kamykowski and S.-J. Zentara, “Hypoxia in the world ocean as recorded in the historical data set,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1861–1874 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences (1)

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, ““Optical backscattering properties of the “clearest” natural waters,” Biogeosciences 4, 1041–1058 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences Discuss. (1)

B. S. Sackmann, M. J. Perry, and C. C. Eriksen, “Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 5, 2839–2865 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

D. Kamykowski and S.-J. Zentara, “Hypoxia in the world ocean as recorded in the historical data set,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37(12), 1861–1874 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (2)

J. J. Helly and L. A. Levin, “Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 51(9), 1159–1168 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Goericke, R. J. Olson, and A. Shalapyonok, “A novel niche for Prochlorococcus sp. in low-light suboxic environments in the Arabian Sea and the Eastern Tropical North Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 47(7), 1183–1205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (3)

A. Galán, V. Molina, B. Thamdrup, D. Woebken, G. Lavik, M. M. M. Kuypers, and O. Ulloa, “Anammox bacteria and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 1021–1031 (2009) (doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.09.016).
[CrossRef]

R. Fuenzalida, W. Schneider, J. Garcés-Vargas, L. Bravo, and C. Lange, “Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 56(16), 992–1003 (2009) (doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.11.001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Morrison, L. A. Codispoti, S. L. Smith, K. Wishner, C. Flagg, W. D. Gardner, S. Gaurin, S. W. A. Naqvi, V. Manghnani, L. Prosperie, and J. S. Gundersen, “The oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea during 1995,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46(8–9), 1903–1931 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. (4)

G. Kullenberg, “Observations of light scattering functions in two oceanic areas,” Deep-Sea Res. 31(3), 295–290 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lewitus and W. W. Broenkow, “Intermediate depth pigment maxima in oxygen minimum zones,” Deep-Sea Res. 32(9), 1101–1115 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Spinrad, H. Glover, B. B. Ward, L. A. Codispoti, and G. Kullenberg, “Suspended particle and bacterial maxima in Peruvian coastal waters during a cold water anomaly,” Deep-Sea Res. 36(5), 715–733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Pak, L. A. Codispoti, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “On the intermediate particle maxima associated with oxygen-poor water off Western South America,” Deep-Sea Res. 27(10), 783–797 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Microbiol. (2)

H. Stevens and O. Ulloa, “Bacterial diversity in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 10(5), 1244–1259 (2008) (doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01539.x).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Castro-González, G. Braker, L. Farías, and O. Ulloa, “Communities of nirS-type denitrifiers in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Environ. Microbiol. 7(9), 1298–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eos Trans. AGU (1)

E. Boss, M. J. Perry, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. V. Zaneveld, and S. Riser, “Three Years of Ocean Data From a Bio-optical Profiling Float,” Eos Trans. AGU 89(23), 209–210 (2008)).
[CrossRef]

Gayana (Zool.) (1)

O. Ulloa, L. Belmar, L. Farias, M. Castro-Gonzalez, A. Galan, P. Lavin, V. Molina, S. Ramirez, F. Santibanez, and H. Stevens, “Microbial communities and their biogeochemical role in the water column of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific,” Gayana (Zool.) 70(1), 83–86 (2006).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Paulmier, D. Ruiz-Pino, V. Garcon, and L. Farias, “Maintaining of the Eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Chile,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 33(20), L20601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

S. W. A. Naqvi, M. D. Kumar, P. V. Narvekar, S. N. De Souza, M. D. George, and C. D'Silva, “An intermediate nepheloid layer associated with high microbial metabolic rates and denitrifcation in the Northwest Indian Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(C9), 16469–16479 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chang and T. D. Dickey, “Optical and physical variability on time scales from minutes to the seasonal cycle on the New England shelf: July 1996 - June 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C5), 9435–9453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and R. A. Quiñones, “Light scattering by marine heterotrophic bacteria,” J. Geophys. Res. 97(C6), 9619–9629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

P. C. Garfield, T. Z. Packard, G. E. Friederich, and L. A. Codispoti, “A subsurface particle maximum layer and enhanced microbial activity in the secondary nitrite maximum of the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean,” J. Mar. Res. 41(4), 747–768 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

L. A. Cuevas and C. E. Morales, “Nanoheterotroph grazing on bacteria and cyanobacteria in oxic and suboxic waters in coastal upwelling areas off northern Chile,” J. Plankton Res. 28(4), 385–397 (2006) (doi:10.1093/plankt/fbi124).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, J. R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, M. J. Perry, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2112–2122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast, USA,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (1)

A. Tengberg, J. Hovdenes, J. H. Andersson, O. Brocandel, R. Diaz, D. Hebert, T. Arnerich, C. Huber, A. Kortzinger, A. Khripounoff, F. Rey, C. Ronning, J. Schimanski, S. Sommer, and A. Stangelmayer, “Evaluation of a lifetime-based optode to measure oxygen in aquatic systems,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 4, 7–17 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

V. Molina, L. Farías, Y. Eissler, L. A. Cuevas, C. E. Morales, and R. Escribano, “Ammonium cycling under the strong oxygen gradient associated with the Oxygen Minimum Zone off northern Chile (~23°S),” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 288, 35–43 (2005) (doi: 10.3354/meps288035).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) (1)

E. Boss, D. Stramski, T. Bergmann, W. S. Pegau, and M. Lewis, “Why should we measure the optical backscattering coefficient?” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 44–49 (2004).

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “Optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174 (1994) (doi:10.1117/12.190060).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (3)

J. Karstensen, L. Stramma, and M. Visbeck, “Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans,” Prog. Oceanogr. 77(4), 331–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Paulmier and D. Ruiz-Pino, “Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the modern ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 80(3–4), 113–128 (2008) (doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2008.08.001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (1)

T. Dickey, “The emergence of concurrent high resolution physical and bio-optical measurements in the upper ocean and their applications,” Rev. Geophys. 29(3), 383–413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Mar. (1)

L. A. Codispoti, J. A. Brandes, J. P. Christensen, A. H. Devol, S. W. A. Naqvi, H. W. Paerl, and T. Yoshinari, “The oceanic fixed nitrogen and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?” Sci. Mar. 65(Suppl. 2), 85–105 (2001).

Science (1)

L. Stramma, G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, “Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropical oceans,” Science 320(5876), 655–658 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

G. Kullenberg, “A comparison of distributions of suspended matter in the Peru and Northwest African upwelling areas,” in Coastal Upwelling, F. A. Richards, ed., (American Geophysical Union 1982), pp. 282–290.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. Steeman Nielsen, eds., (Academic 1974), pp. 1–24.

Aanderaa Data Instruments, “TD 218 Operating manual: oxygen optide 3830, 3835, 3930, 3975, 4130, 4175,” 78pp (2007).

M. S. Twardowski, and W. E. T. Labs, Inc., Department of Research, 165 Dean Knauss Dr., Narragansett, RI, 02882 (personal communication, 2008).

R. Schlitzer, Ocean Data View, http://odv.awi.de.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Float trajectories for two Apex floats over time. Color bar indicates depth of bathymetry contours in meters. The grey diamonds are float 62164; the black squares are float 62166. For both floats the red circle indicates the launch location on 27 March 2008, and the red star indicates the location of the float on 18 December 2008. The time between each surface location is three days.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Progression of temperature, salinity, oxygen, particulate backscattering at 700 nm, and Chl a concentration over time/distance and depth in the oxygen minimum zone off of Chile. Data are from float 62164. Sample locations are shown as black dots. All plots show the depth range from the surface to 800 meters, except Chl a, which shows data from the surface to 200 meters only. White contour lines show the oxygen concentration at 4.5 and 20 μM. Black contour lines on the panel showing the backscattering data represent the oxygen concentration in μM. The failure of the conductivity sensor is evident at approximately 800 km into the float trajectory. Sections produced using Ocean Data View software [Schlitzer, 2009].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Progression of temperature, salinity, oxygen, particulate backscattering at 700 nm, and Chl a concentration over time/distance and depth in the oxygen minimum zone off of Chile. Data are from float 62166. Sample locations are shown as black dots. All plots show the depth range from the surface to 800 meters, except Chl a, which shows data from the surface to 200 meters only. White contour lines show the oxygen concentration at 4.5 and 20 μM. Black contour lines on the panel showing the backscattering data represent the oxygen concentration in μM. Sections produced using Ocean Data View software [Schlitzer, 2009].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representative profiles from float 62164 of temperature, oxygen, Chl a, and backscattering from the oxygen minimum zone off of Chile. A) Subsurface Chl a peak and elevated backscattering signals are evident in hypoxic waters. B) Only a subsurface backscattering signal is present within the OMZ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Potential temperature/salinity (TS) diagrams showing data from two Apex profiling floats located in the eastern south Pacific oxygen minimum zone. The top row is all data collected from float 62164 before the conductivity sensor failure, and the bottom row is all data collected from float 62166. The color of the TS-diagrams on the left show the oxygen concentration, and on the right the colors represent the magnitude of the particulate backscattering coefficient at 700 nm. Isopycnals are shown on all TS-diagrams.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Enumeration of fluorescence and particulate backscattering signals in the eastern South Pacific oxygen minimum zone.

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