Abstract

High speed modulation based on a compact silicon ring resonator operating in depletion mode is demonstrated. The device exhibits an electrical small signal bandwidth of 19GHz. The device is therefore a candidate for highly compact, wide bandwidth modulators for a variety of applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8845–8854 ( 2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 ( 2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 ( 2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 ( 2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. You, M. Park, J. W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 ( 2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Surrey Ion Beam Centre implantation facility, http://www.ionbeamcentre.co.uk/ , CEA Leti, http://www-leti.cea.fr
  11. T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
    [Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 ( 2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[Crossref]

Alzanki, T.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Benett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Emerson, N.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Emerson, N. G.

Fédéli, J. M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 ( 2006).
[Crossref]

Gwilliam, R.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

Laval, S.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyan, P.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris, D.

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

Park, M.

Png, C. E.

Reed, G. T.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Sealy, B. J.

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, “Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure,” Opt. Express 16(1), 334–339 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

You, J. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Alzanki, R. Gwilliam, N. Emerson, and B. J. Sealy, “Differential Hall effect profiling of ultrashallow junctions in Sb implanted silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1979–1980 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Benett, “Electrooptical effects in Silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Marris, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6109–6111 ( 2004).
[Crossref]

Micro, IEEE (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS Photonics for High-Speed Interconnects,” Micro, IEEE 26(2), 58–66 ( 2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “Recent development in a high-speed silicon optical modulator based on reverse-biased pn diode in a silicon waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(064001), 1–7 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Surrey Ion Beam Centre implantation facility, http://www.ionbeamcentre.co.uk/ , CEA Leti, http://www-leti.cea.fr

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section and (b) top view of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of ring resonator based modulator with a 5 microns ring radius (a) before and (b) for different radius size after contacts deposition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental ring resonator transmission with no bias. (b) Experimental effective index variation as a function of reverse bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized optical response as a function of frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Junction alignment error in nm against effective index change for increasing reverse voltages in volts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Junction alignment error against effective index change for a 10 volt reverse voltage with decreasing antimony activation.

Equations (1)

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Δ n e f f = Δ λ λ n g

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