Abstract

This paper reports on a simple synthesis and characterization of highly birefringent vaterite microspheres, which are composed of 20–30 nm sized nanocrystalls. Scanning electron microscopy shows a quite disordered assembly of nanocrystals within the microspheres. However, using optical tweezers, the effective birefringence of the microspheres was measured to be Δn=0.06, which compares to Δn=0.1 of vaterite single crystals. This suggests a very high orientation of the nanocrystals within the microspheres. A hyperbolic model of the direction of the optical axis throughout the vaterite spherulite best fits the experimental data. Results from polarized light microscopy further confirm the hyperbolic model.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  28. H. W. Morse and J. D. H. Donnay, "Optics and structure of three-dimensional spherulites," Am. Mineral. 21, 391-426 (1936).
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  31. H. Cölfen and L. Qi, "A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer," Chemistry A Euro. J. 7, 106-116 (2001).
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  32. C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
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2009 (3)

M. Funk, S. J. Parkin, A. B. Stilgoe, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Constant power optical tweezers with controllable torque," Opt. Lett. 34, 139-141 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Y. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "T-matrix calculation via discretedipole approximation, point matching and exploiting symmetry," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1460-1471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

K. D. Wulff, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Controlled rotation of birefringent particles in an optical trap," Appl. Opt. 47(34), 6428-6433 (2008).

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, "Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy," Nat. Methods 5, 491-505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, "Recent advances in optical tweezers," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205-228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Wood, G. S. Roberts, S. Eaimkhong, and P. Bartlett, "Characterization of microparticles with driven optical tweezers," Faraday Discuss. 137, 319-333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Deufel, S. Forth, C. R. Simmons, S. Dejgosha, and M. D. Wang, "Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection," Nat. Mater. 4, 223-225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman, T. Lionnet, and J.-F. Allemand, "Single-molecule micromanipulation techniques," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 33-67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J.W. Parkin, G. Kn¨oner, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Picoliter viscometry using optically rotated particles," Phys. Rev. E 76, 041507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "FDFD/T-matrix hybrid method," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 274-284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Rieger, T. Frechen, G. Cox,W. Heckmann, C. Schmidt, and J. Thieme, "Precursor structures in the crystallization/ precipitation processes of caco3 and control of particle formation by polyelectrolytes," Faraday Discuss. 136, 265-277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

K. Naka, S.-C. Huang, and Y. Chujo, "Formation of stable vaterite with poly(acrylic acid) by the delayed addition method," Langmuir 22, 7760-7767 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schlomach, K. Quarch, and M. Kind, "Investigation of precipitation of calcium carbonate at high supersaturations," Chem. Eng. Technol. 29, 215-220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, "An optically driven pump for microfluidics," Lab on a Chip 6, 735-739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Knöner, B. E. Rolfe, J. H. Campbell, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Mechanics of cellular adhesion to artificial artery templates," Biophys. J. 91, 3085-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J.-P. Andreassen, "Formation mechanism and morphology in precipitation of vaterite — nano-aggregation or crystal growth?" J. Cryst. Growth 274, 256-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Donnet, P. Bowen, N. Jongen, J. Lemaˆıtre, and H. Hofmann, "Use of seeds to control precipitation of calcium carbonate and determination of seed nature," Langmuir 21, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J.-P. Andreassen and M. J. Hounslow, "Growth and aggregation of vaterite in seeded-batch experiments," Am. Inst. Chem. Engin. J. 50, 2772-2782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical microrheology using rotating laser-trapped particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 198104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Qi, J. Li, and J. Ma, "Biomimetic morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in mixed solutions of surfactants and double-hydrophilic block copolymers," Adv. Mater. 14, 300-303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudloff, M. Antonietti, H. C¨olfen, J. Pretula, K. Kaluzynski, and S. Penczek, "Double-hydrophilic block copolymers with monophosphate ester moieties as crystal growth modifiers of CaCO3," Macromol. Chem. Physics 203, 627-635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

C.-K. Sun, Y.-C. Huang, P. C. Cheng, H.-C. Liu, and B.-L. Lin, "Cell manipulation by use of diamond microparticles as handles of optical tweezers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1483-1489 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical measurement of microscopic torques," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 405-413 (2001).

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Meldrum and S. T. Hyde, "Morphological influence of magnesium and organic additives on the precipitation of calcite," J. Cryst. Growth 231, 544-558 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Cölfen and L. Qi, "A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer," Chemistry A Euro. J. 7, 106-116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. H. Crichton and P. L. Marston, "The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation," Electron. J. Differ. Equ.Conf. 04, 37-50 (2000).

1998 (2)

S. L. Tracy, D. A. Williams, and H. M. Jennings, "The growth of calcite spherulites from solution II. Kinetics of formation," J. Cryst. Growth 193, 382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. Dupont, F. Portemer, and M. Figlarz, "Synthesis and study of a well crystallized CaCO3 vaterite showing a new habitus," J. Mater. Chem. 7, 797-800 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kralj, L. Breˇcevi’c, and J. Kontrec, "Vaterite growth and dissolution in aqueous solution III. Kinetics of transformation," J. Cryst. Growth 177, 248-257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, "Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps," Nature 368, 113-119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Kralj, L. Breˇcevi’c, and A. E. Nielsen, "Vaterite growth and dissolution in aqueous solution I. Kinetics of crystal growth," J. Cryst. Growth 104, 793-800 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Mann, B. R. Heywood, S. Rajam, and J. D. Birchall, "Controlled crystallisation of CaCO3 under stearic acid monolayers," Nature 334, 692-695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

O. Söhnel and J. W. Mullin, "Precipitation of calcium carbonate," J. Cryst. Growth 60, 239-250 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. D. P. Davies and G. R. Heal, "Polymorph transition kinetics by DTA," J. Therm. Anal. 13, 473-487 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. D. H. Donnay and G. Donnay, "Optical determination of water content in spherulitic vaterite," Acta Crystallogr. 22, 312-314 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. J. Meyer, "Bildung und Morphologie des Vaterits," Z. Kristallogr. 121, 220-242 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

S. R. Kamhi, "On the structure of vaterite, CaCO3," Acta Crystallogr. 16, 770-772 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

J. D. C. McConnell, "Vaterite from Ballycraigy, Larne, Northern Ireland," Mineral. Mag. 32, 535-544 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

A. L. Patterson, "The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination," Phys. Rev. 56, 978-982 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

H. W. Morse and J. D. H. Donnay, "Optics and structure of three-dimensional spherulites," Am. Mineral. 21, 391-426 (1936).

1925 (1)

R. E. Gibson, R.W. G. Wyckoff, and H. E. Merwin, "Vaterite and -calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 10, 325-333 (1925).
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

J. Johnston, H. E. Merwin, and E. D. Williamson, "The several forms of calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 41, 473-512 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Allemand, J.-F.

K. C. Neuman, T. Lionnet, and J.-F. Allemand, "Single-molecule micromanipulation techniques," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 33-67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. L.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreassen, J.-P.

J.-P. Andreassen, "Formation mechanism and morphology in precipitation of vaterite — nano-aggregation or crystal growth?" J. Cryst. Growth 274, 256-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Andreassen and M. J. Hounslow, "Growth and aggregation of vaterite in seeded-batch experiments," Am. Inst. Chem. Engin. J. 50, 2772-2782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Antonietti, M.

J. Rudloff, M. Antonietti, H. C¨olfen, J. Pretula, K. Kaluzynski, and S. Penczek, "Double-hydrophilic block copolymers with monophosphate ester moieties as crystal growth modifiers of CaCO3," Macromol. Chem. Physics 203, 627-635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Bai, F.

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartlett, P.

T. A. Wood, G. S. Roberts, S. Eaimkhong, and P. Bartlett, "Characterization of microparticles with driven optical tweezers," Faraday Discuss. 137, 319-333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, R. M.

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilyard, T.

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birchall, J. D.

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Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093119 (2008).
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J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, "An optically driven pump for microfluidics," Lab on a Chip 6, 735-739 (2006).
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M. Funk, S. J. Parkin, A. B. Stilgoe, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Constant power optical tweezers with controllable torque," Opt. Lett. 34, 139-141 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

Persson, M.

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilizota, T.

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Portemer, F.

L. Dupont, F. Portemer, and M. Figlarz, "Synthesis and study of a well crystallized CaCO3 vaterite showing a new habitus," J. Mater. Chem. 7, 797-800 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pretula, J.

J. Rudloff, M. Antonietti, H. C¨olfen, J. Pretula, K. Kaluzynski, and S. Penczek, "Double-hydrophilic block copolymers with monophosphate ester moieties as crystal growth modifiers of CaCO3," Macromol. Chem. Physics 203, 627-635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

L. Qi, J. Li, and J. Ma, "Biomimetic morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in mixed solutions of surfactants and double-hydrophilic block copolymers," Adv. Mater. 14, 300-303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Cölfen and L. Qi, "A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer," Chemistry A Euro. J. 7, 106-116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quarch, K.

J. Schlomach, K. Quarch, and M. Kind, "Investigation of precipitation of calcium carbonate at high supersaturations," Chem. Eng. Technol. 29, 215-220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajam, S.

S. Mann, B. R. Heywood, S. Rajam, and J. D. Birchall, "Controlled crystallisation of CaCO3 under stearic acid monolayers," Nature 334, 692-695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, J.

J. Rieger, T. Frechen, G. Cox,W. Heckmann, C. Schmidt, and J. Thieme, "Precursor structures in the crystallization/ precipitation processes of caco3 and control of particle formation by polyelectrolytes," Faraday Discuss. 136, 265-277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, G. S.

T. A. Wood, G. S. Roberts, S. Eaimkhong, and P. Bartlett, "Characterization of microparticles with driven optical tweezers," Faraday Discuss. 137, 319-333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Gallego, M.

C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Navarro, A.

C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rolfe, B. E.

G. Knöner, B. E. Rolfe, J. H. Campbell, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Mechanics of cellular adhesion to artificial artery templates," Biophys. J. 91, 3085-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

M. Funk, S. J. Parkin, A. B. Stilgoe, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Constant power optical tweezers with controllable torque," Opt. Lett. 34, 139-141 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. L. Y. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "T-matrix calculation via discretedipole approximation, point matching and exploiting symmetry," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1460-1471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J.W. Parkin, G. Kn¨oner, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Picoliter viscometry using optically rotated particles," Phys. Rev. E 76, 041507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "FDFD/T-matrix hybrid method," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 274-284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöner, B. E. Rolfe, J. H. Campbell, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Mechanics of cellular adhesion to artificial artery templates," Biophys. J. 91, 3085-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical microrheology using rotating laser-trapped particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 198104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical measurement of microscopic torques," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 405-413 (2001).

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rudloff, J.

J. Rudloff, M. Antonietti, H. C¨olfen, J. Pretula, K. Kaluzynski, and S. Penczek, "Double-hydrophilic block copolymers with monophosphate ester moieties as crystal growth modifiers of CaCO3," Macromol. Chem. Physics 203, 627-635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlomach, J.

J. Schlomach, K. Quarch, and M. Kind, "Investigation of precipitation of calcium carbonate at high supersaturations," Chem. Eng. Technol. 29, 215-220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C.

J. Rieger, T. Frechen, G. Cox,W. Heckmann, C. Schmidt, and J. Thieme, "Precursor structures in the crystallization/ precipitation processes of caco3 and control of particle formation by polyelectrolytes," Faraday Discuss. 136, 265-277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, C. R.

C. Deufel, S. Forth, C. R. Simmons, S. Dejgosha, and M. D. Wang, "Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection," Nat. Mater. 4, 223-225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, R. M.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, "Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps," Nature 368, 113-119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, "Recent advances in optical tweezers," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205-228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söhnel, O.

O. Söhnel and J. W. Mullin, "Precipitation of calcium carbonate," J. Cryst. Growth 60, 239-250 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Spudich, J. A.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, "Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps," Nature 368, 113-119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stilgoe, A. B.

Sun, C.-K.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tans, S. J.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thieme, J.

J. Rieger, T. Frechen, G. Cox,W. Heckmann, C. Schmidt, and J. Thieme, "Precursor structures in the crystallization/ precipitation processes of caco3 and control of particle formation by polyelectrolytes," Faraday Discuss. 136, 265-277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, S. L.

S. L. Tracy, D. A. Williams, and H. M. Jennings, "The growth of calcite spherulites from solution II. Kinetics of formation," J. Cryst. Growth 193, 382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, R.

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

C. Deufel, S. Forth, C. R. Simmons, S. Dejgosha, and M. D. Wang, "Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection," Nat. Mater. 4, 223-225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. A.

S. L. Tracy, D. A. Williams, and H. M. Jennings, "The growth of calcite spherulites from solution II. Kinetics of formation," J. Cryst. Growth 193, 382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, E. D.

J. Johnston, H. E. Merwin, and E. D. Williamson, "The several forms of calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 41, 473-512 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Wood, B.

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, T. A.

T. A. Wood, G. S. Roberts, S. Eaimkhong, and P. Bartlett, "Characterization of microparticles with driven optical tweezers," Faraday Discuss. 137, 319-333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulff, K. D.

Wyckoff, R.W. G.

R. E. Gibson, R.W. G. Wyckoff, and H. E. Merwin, "Vaterite and -calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 10, 325-333 (1925).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. (2)

S. R. Kamhi, "On the structure of vaterite, CaCO3," Acta Crystallogr. 16, 770-772 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. D. H. Donnay and G. Donnay, "Optical determination of water content in spherulitic vaterite," Acta Crystallogr. 22, 312-314 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

L. Qi, J. Li, and J. Ma, "Biomimetic morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in mixed solutions of surfactants and double-hydrophilic block copolymers," Adv. Mater. 14, 300-303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Am. Inst. Chem. Engin. J. (1)

J.-P. Andreassen and M. J. Hounslow, "Growth and aggregation of vaterite in seeded-batch experiments," Am. Inst. Chem. Engin. J. 50, 2772-2782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci. (2)

R. E. Gibson, R.W. G. Wyckoff, and H. E. Merwin, "Vaterite and -calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 10, 325-333 (1925).
[CrossRef]

J. Johnston, H. E. Merwin, and E. D. Williamson, "The several forms of calcium carbonate," Am. J. Sci. 41, 473-512 (1916).
[CrossRef]

Am. Mineral. (1)

H. W. Morse and J. D. H. Donnay, "Optics and structure of three-dimensional spherulites," Am. Mineral. 21, 391-426 (1936).

Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1)

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, "Recent advances in optical tweezers," Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77, 205-228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

K. C. Neuman, T. Lionnet, and J.-F. Allemand, "Single-molecule micromanipulation techniques," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 37, 33-67 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (2)

T. Pilizota, T. Bilyard, F. Bai, M. Futai, H. Hosokawa, and R. M. Berry, "A programmable optical angle clamp for rotary molecular motors," Biophys. J. 93, 264-275 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Knöner, B. E. Rolfe, J. H. Campbell, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Mechanics of cellular adhesion to artificial artery templates," Biophys. J. 91, 3085-3096 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Eng. Technol. (1)

J. Schlomach, K. Quarch, and M. Kind, "Investigation of precipitation of calcium carbonate at high supersaturations," Chem. Eng. Technol. 29, 215-220 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chemistry A Euro. J. (1)

H. Cölfen and L. Qi, "A systematic examination of the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate in the presence of a double-hydrophilic block copolymer," Chemistry A Euro. J. 7, 106-116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. J. Differ. Equ. (1)

J. H. Crichton and P. L. Marston, "The measurable distinction between the spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic radiation," Electron. J. Differ. Equ.Conf. 04, 37-50 (2000).

Faraday Discuss. (2)

J. Rieger, T. Frechen, G. Cox,W. Heckmann, C. Schmidt, and J. Thieme, "Precursor structures in the crystallization/ precipitation processes of caco3 and control of particle formation by polyelectrolytes," Faraday Discuss. 136, 265-277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Wood, G. S. Roberts, S. Eaimkhong, and P. Bartlett, "Characterization of microparticles with driven optical tweezers," Faraday Discuss. 137, 319-333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. (1)

C. Rodriguez-Navarro, C. Jimenez-Lopez, A. Rodriguez-Navarro, M. T. Gonzalez-Munoz, and M. Rodriguez-Gallego, "Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite," Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71, 1197-1213 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Hu, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Antireflection coating for improved optical trapping," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 093119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (6)

D. Kralj, L. Breˇcevi’c, and A. E. Nielsen, "Vaterite growth and dissolution in aqueous solution I. Kinetics of crystal growth," J. Cryst. Growth 104, 793-800 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Kralj, L. Breˇcevi’c, and J. Kontrec, "Vaterite growth and dissolution in aqueous solution III. Kinetics of transformation," J. Cryst. Growth 177, 248-257 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Andreassen, "Formation mechanism and morphology in precipitation of vaterite — nano-aggregation or crystal growth?" J. Cryst. Growth 274, 256-264 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Söhnel and J. W. Mullin, "Precipitation of calcium carbonate," J. Cryst. Growth 60, 239-250 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Tracy, D. A. Williams, and H. M. Jennings, "The growth of calcite spherulites from solution II. Kinetics of formation," J. Cryst. Growth 193, 382-388 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Meldrum and S. T. Hyde, "Morphological influence of magnesium and organic additives on the precipitation of calcite," J. Cryst. Growth 231, 544-558 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

L. Dupont, F. Portemer, and M. Figlarz, "Synthesis and study of a well crystallized CaCO3 vaterite showing a new habitus," J. Mater. Chem. 7, 797-800 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical measurement of microscopic torques," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 405-413 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

V. L. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, S. J. Parkin, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "FDFD/T-matrix hybrid method," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 106, 274-284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. L. Y. Loke, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "T-matrix calculation via discretedipole approximation, point matching and exploiting symmetry," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1460-1471 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Therm. Anal. (1)

D. D. P. Davies and G. R. Heal, "Polymorph transition kinetics by DTA," J. Therm. Anal. 13, 473-487 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lab on a Chip (1)

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, "An optically driven pump for microfluidics," Lab on a Chip 6, 735-739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (3)

R. Vogel, M. Persson, C. Feng, S. J. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, B. Wood, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Synthesis and surface modification of birefringent vaterite microspheres," Langmuir 25, 11672-11679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Donnet, P. Bowen, N. Jongen, J. Lemaˆıtre, and H. Hofmann, "Use of seeds to control precipitation of calcium carbonate and determination of seed nature," Langmuir 21, 100-108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Naka, S.-C. Huang, and Y. Chujo, "Formation of stable vaterite with poly(acrylic acid) by the delayed addition method," Langmuir 22, 7760-7767 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Physics (1)

J. Rudloff, M. Antonietti, H. C¨olfen, J. Pretula, K. Kaluzynski, and S. Penczek, "Double-hydrophilic block copolymers with monophosphate ester moieties as crystal growth modifiers of CaCO3," Macromol. Chem. Physics 203, 627-635 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mineral. Mag. (1)

J. D. C. McConnell, "Vaterite from Ballycraigy, Larne, Northern Ireland," Mineral. Mag. 32, 535-544 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

C. Deufel, S. Forth, C. R. Simmons, S. Dejgosha, and M. D. Wang, "Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection," Nat. Mater. 4, 223-225 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

K. C. Neuman and A. Nagy, "Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy," Nat. Methods 5, 491-505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (5)

S. Mann, B. R. Heywood, S. Rajam, and J. D. Birchall, "Controlled crystallisation of CaCO3 under stearic acid monolayers," Nature 334, 692-695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles," Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, "Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry," Nature 365, 721-727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, "Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps," Nature 368, 113-119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, "The bacteriophage theta 29 portal motor can package DNA against a larger internal force," Nature 413, 748-752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Patterson, "The Scherrer formula for x-ray particle size determination," Phys. Rev. 56, 978-982 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. J.W. Parkin, G. Kn¨oner, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Picoliter viscometry using optically rotated particles," Phys. Rev. E 76, 041507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, "Optical microrheology using rotating laser-trapped particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 198104 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

H. J. Meyer, "Bildung und Morphologie des Vaterits," Z. Kristallogr. 121, 220-242 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. P. Klug and L. E. Alexander, X-ray Diffraction Procedures (J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1954).

P. Moon and D. E. Spencer, Field Theory Handbook (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

X-ray diffraction spectrum of a typical sample, showing predominantly vaterite (diffraction peaks are indexed) and to a lesser degree calcite and aragonite polymorphs (unlabeled diffraction peaks).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM (A,B,C) and TEM (D,E,F) images of vaterite particles. Vaterite particles can be grown almost perfectly spherical and with a smooth surface (A,B). A vaterite particle that has been cracked in half is shown in C. TEM images of microtomed vaterite particles at different magnifications are shown in D and E. A TEM micrograph of a fragment of a vaterite particle is displayed in F. Moiré patterns can be observed at various locations in the fragment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The degree of spin generated in the optical trapping beam for varying particle diameters is shown in A. Results of various fitting models are also plotted. A hyperbolic distribution of the optical axis (B) throughout the volume of the spherulites best fits the experimental data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Vaterite particle, rotated to different angles in an optical trap, viewed between crossed polarizers. The diameter of the vaterite particle is approximately 10µm (A). B shows the calculated images of vaterite particle with a diameter of 6.6 λ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The top plot shows the dependence of the optical torque and the viscous drag torque on the diameter of a vaterite particle. The optical torque is for a trapping beam with 250mW of power at 1064 nm. The drag torque is for a sphere in water rotating at 50 Hz. The bottom plot shows the rotation rate of different sized vaterite particles in water with 250mW of laser power.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ σ s = 1 cos ( π D half d )
Δ n = 0 . 64 λ D half = 0.06 ,

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