Abstract

Long period gratings (LPGs) are fabricated by use of focused high frequency CO2 laser pulses to periodically modify the transverse dimension of silica microfibers. A 20-period LPG with a 27dB attenuation dip is realized in a microfiber with a diameter of ~6.3μm. The resonant wavelength has a negative temperature coefficient and a high sensitivity to external refractive index. The microfiber LPGs may be useful in micron scale in-fiber devices and sensors.

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2008 (6)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Rao, Y.-P. Wang, Z.-L. Ran, and T. Zhu, “Novel Fiber-Optic Sensors Based on Long-Period Fiber Gratings Written by High-Frequency CO 2 Laser Pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(5), 1320–1327 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

1989 (1)

Andrews, S. R.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, J.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

Birks, T. A.

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Bock, W.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Calixto, S.

Chen, M. H.

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chern, G. W.

Cheung, G.

Davidson, C. R.

Del Villar, I.

Dimmick, T. E.

Ding, W.

Dobb, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Engan, H. E.

Finazzi, V.

Fraser, J. M.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, W. A.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Greig, P.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Hirao, K.

Ho, H. L.

Hwang, I. K.

Jacques, F.

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Judkins, J. B.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalli, K.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kim, B. Y.

Knight, J. C.

Kondo, Y.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Le Roux, R.

Lemaire, P. J.

Liao, Y. B.

Lin, C. Y.

Liu, L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loock, H. P.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Mägi, E. C.

Maier, S. A.

Matias, I. R.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Minkovich, V. P.

Mitsuyu, T.

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Moore, E. D.

Nouchi, K.

Oleschuk, R. D.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Östling, D.

Payne, D. N.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Petrovic, J. S.

Ran, Z.-L.

Rao, Y.-J.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotskaya, L. I.

Sotsky, A. B.

Steinvurzel, P.

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

Sumetsky, M.

Tian, Z. B.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsao, C. Y. H.

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Villatoro, J.

Wang, D.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, L. A.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. P.

Wang, Y.-P.

Watanabe, M.

Webb, D. J.

Xiao, L.

Xuan, H.

Xuan, H. F.

Yam, S. S. H.

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, M.

Zhu, T.

IEE Proc. J. (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices. I. Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. J. 138, 343–354 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, J. Barnes, W. Bock, P. Greig, J. M. Fraser, H. P. Loock, and R. D. Oleschuk, “Refractive index sensing with Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on concatenating two single-mode fiber tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 626–628 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, “Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices,” Nano Lett. 5(2), 259–262 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (12)

Z. B. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, and H. P. Loock, “Refractive index sensor based on an abrupt taper Michelson interferometer in a single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1105–1107 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, and F. J. Arregui, “Enhancement of sensitivity in long-period fiber gratings with deposition of low-refractive-index materials,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2363–2365 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kakarantzas, T. E. Dimmick, T. A. Birks, R. Le Roux, and P. S. J. Russell, “Miniature all-fiber devices based on CO(2) laser microstructuring of tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(15), 1137–1139 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Modal coupling in surface-corrugated long-period-grating fiber tapers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 717–719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Xuan, W. Jin, J. Ju, Y. P. Wang, M. Zhang, Y. B. Liao, and M. H. Chen, “Hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 845–847 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Östling and H. E. Engan, “Narrow-band acousto-optic tunable filtering in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1247–1249 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, “Long-period fiber gratings based on periodic microbends,” Opt. Lett. 24(18), 1263–1265 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, “Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 336–338 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, “Optical fiber long-period grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 692–694 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, and W. Jin, “Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3414–3416 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the CO2 laser system for fabricating LPGs in microfibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A LPG fabricated in a microfiber. (a) Microscope image showing the periodic micro-tapers along the fiber. (b) Microscope and (c) SEM images showing the details of two microtapers made on a 6.3μm diameter microfiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the transmitted spectrum of a LPG in a microfiber with increasing number of scanning cycles (6th, 10th, and 12th). The LPG is written in a ~6.3um diameter microfiber and has 20 periods and a grating pitch of 100μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wave guiding properties of air clad silica optical microfibers. (a) Effective refractive index n e f f of guided modes as functions of the normalized fiber diameter D / λ ; (b) Grating pitches as function of wavelength for modes coupling between HE11(LP01) and higher-order modes. This fiber diameter is assumed to be 6.3μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase matching curves for microfibers with different diameter D. (a) Coupling between HE11 and HE21; (b) Coupling between HE11 and HE12.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Shift of LPG resonance dip around 1536nm with temperature; (b) Linear fit showing the relationship between the resonant wavelength and temperature. The LPG used is the one shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The response of an LPG in a microfiber with a diameter of 7.4μm to external refractive index. (a) The transmitted spectrum of the LPG before and after it is immersed into a refractive index oil; (b) Dip wavelength as a function of refractive index (c) Linear fit showing the relationship between the dip wavelength and external refractive index. The LPG is written near the center of waist of the fiber taper. The diameter of the waist is ~7.4μm and the length of the taper is ~20mm.

Equations (3)

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  Δ λ 3 d B Λ 2 ( λ 0 ) L | d Λ d λ | 1
Λ = λ / ( n e f f , 0 n e f f , v )
d λ d T = γ ( d Λ d T Δ n e f f + d Δ n e f f d n d n d T Λ )

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