Abstract

A #-shaped gold wires metamaterial is designed for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and sensing. The tunability of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitations, hotspots distribution, localized field enhancement and sensitivity of the structure are investigated. In contrast to most metamaterial, the #-shaped structure exhibits two pronounced SPRs that are insensitive to the polarization of excitation light. Pure electromagnetic Raman enhancement factors of about 106 are achieved on the symmetrically distributed field hotspots. It is possible to break the usable wavelength range of conventional gold SERS substrates via higher order excitations of the #-shaped metamaterial. In addition, the sensitivity and the figure of merits are found to be comparable or even higher than those of conventional SERS substrates. All these factors together with the high reproducibility nature of metamaterial and its simple planer structure suggest that this structure is very promising for surface enhanced spectroscopy and sensing applications.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “All optical metamaterial circuit board at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 143902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wood, “The top ten advances in materials science,” Mater. Today 11(1-2), 40–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Liu and S. J. Yang, “Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering based on Ag-Au bimetals prepared by galvanic replacement reactions,” Electrochim. Acta 52(5), 1925–1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Wang, L. X. Ran, B. I. Wu, H. S. Chen, J. T. Huangfu, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Multi-frequency resonator based on dual-band S-shaped left-handed material,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12288–12294 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Enoch, R. Quidant, and G. Badenes, “Optical sensing based on plasmon coupling in nanoparticle arrays,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3422–3427 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. J. Liang and W. Kiefer, “Chemical effect of SERS with near-infrared excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 27(12), 879–885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “All optical metamaterial circuit board at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 143902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Badenes, G.

Beigang, R.

Bingham, C. M.

Bukasov, R.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. H.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. W.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ding, P.

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “All optical metamaterial circuit board at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 143902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

Etrich, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glidle, A.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grady, N. K.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

Guo, H.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. W.

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollars, C. W.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W. Q.

Huangfu, J. T.

Huser, T. R.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, G. H.

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, W.

E. J. Liang and W. Kiefer, “Chemical effect of SERS with near-infrared excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 27(12), 879–885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

Lane, S. M.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapine, M.

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. W.

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, E. J.

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Liang and W. Kiefer, “Chemical effect of SERS with near-infrared excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 27(12), 879–885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

Y. C. Liu and S. J. Yang, “Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering based on Ag-Au bimetals prepared by galvanic replacement reactions,” Electrochim. Acta 52(5), 1925–1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loa, I.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oubre, C.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

Paul, O.

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

Ran, L. X.

Reinhard, B.

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherry, L. J.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shumaker-Parry, J. S.

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Syassen, K.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talley, C. E.

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

Tretyakov, S.

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D. X.

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1800–1802 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B. J.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, J.

J. Wood, “The top ten advances in materials science,” Mater. Today 11(1-2), 40–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

Xia, Y.

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Q. Z.

Yang, S. J.

Y. C. Liu and S. J. Yang, “Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering based on Ag-Au bimetals prepared by galvanic replacement reactions,” Electrochim. Acta 52(5), 1925–1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. X.

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zengerle, R.

Zentgraf, T.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, W. Q. Hu, Q. Zhou, L. Zhang, Y. X. Yuan, and Q. Z. Xue, “SPP-associated dual left-handed bands and field enhancement in metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial perforated by asymmetric cross hole arrays,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2198–2206 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Resonances of split-ring resonator metamaterials in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 219–227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, “Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

Y. C. Liu and S. J. Yang, “Improved surface-enhanced Raman scattering based on Ag-Au bimetals prepared by galvanic replacement reactions,” Electrochim. Acta 52(5), 1925–1931 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IET Microw. Antennas Propag. (1)

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

G. H. Jeong, Y. W. Lee, M. Kim, and S. W. Han, “High-yield synthesis of multi-branched gold nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 329(1), 97–102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

E. J. Liang and W. Kiefer, “Chemical effect of SERS with near-infrared excitation,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 27(12), 879–885 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

J. Wood, “The top ten advances in materials science,” Mater. Today 11(1-2), 40–45 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

C. E. Talley, J. B. Jackson, C. Oubre, N. K. Grady, C. W. Hollars, S. M. Lane, T. R. Huser, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from individual Au nanoparticles and nanoparticle dimer substrates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1569–1574 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bukasov and J. S. Shumaker-Parry, “Highly tunable infrared extinction properties of gold nanocrescents,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1113–1118 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, R. Jin, C. A. Mirkin, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver triangular nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 2060–2065 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Sherry, S. H. Chang, G. C. Schatz, R. P. Van Duyne, B. J. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of single silver nanocubes,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2034–2038 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 759–762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron model,” Phys. Rev. B 72(7), 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

P. Ding, E. J. Liang, L. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Y. X. Yuan, “Antisymmetric resonant mode and negative refraction in double-ring resonators under normal-to-plane incidence,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(1), 016604 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “All optical metamaterial circuit board at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 143902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(9), 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Frontier research in metamaterials: characterizations, applications and design paradigms,” 18th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics Communications. (Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2005) pp.1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a #-shaped gold wires metamaterial; (b) a unit cell with geometric scales P=260 nm, a=b=140 nm, c=d=40 nm, e=f=10 nm, and the gold thickness h=30 nm

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Extinction spectrum in #-shaped gold wires arrays for either electric field polarizations. The first resonance (N=1, M1) is at 753 nm and the second resonance (N=2, E1) is at 605 nm. (b) Distributions of induced currents at the excitation of 753 nm (N=1, M1) and (c) at the excitation of 605 nm (N=2, E1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the SPRs on (a) the arms length a; and (b) the gap’s widths e (■,●) and f (▲,▼)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The near field distribution and the corresponding field enhancement (|E|/|E0|): (a) and (b) at the excitation of 753 nm (N=1, M1); (c) and (d) at the excitation of 605 nm (N=2, E1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SPR sensitivity to the local dielectric environment: (a) the SPR extinction spectra for P=260 nm, a=b=140 nm, c=d=40 nm, e=f=10 nm upon a change in dielectric environment; (b) the SPR sensitivity to dielectric environment is equal to the value of the slope.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak Positions and Environmental Sensitivity Parameters for Different Gaps Structures

Metrics