Abstract

We propose a novel in-line saturable absorber incorporating a hollow optical fiber (HOF) filled with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersion. The evanescent field of the propagating light in the ring core interacts with the SWCNT/polymer composite distributed over the whole length of the HOF. The proposed saturable absorber with all-fiber format offers the robust and long nonlinear interaction along the waveguide direction expecting the increase of the threshold for optical and thermal damages with simple fabrication process. Low concentration SWCNT/polymer composite exhibiting very broadband resonant absorption around 1.5 μm with low scattering loss is prepared and based on this, we successfully demonstrate the passively mode-locked fiber laser including the SWCNT-filled HOF where the spectral bandwidth and the pulse duration of the laser output are 5.5 nm and 490 fs, respectively, with a repetition rate of 18.5 MHz.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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2009

2008

2007

2005

2004

2003

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

Aitchison, B.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photoincs and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Birks, T. A.

Brown, D. P.

Chen, P.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, A. I.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. Y.

Dianov, E. M.

Díaz, F.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fong, K. H.

Freitag, M.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photoincs and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furuki, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

Grange, R.

Griebner, U.

Haiml, M.

Hakulinen, T.

Hale, A.

Härkönen, A.

Iwasa, I.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jablonski, M.

Ji, W.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kaskela, A.

Kauppinen, E. I.

Keller, U.

Kerbage, C.

Kieu, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Kivistö, S.

Konov, V. I.

Lee, J. W.

Lee, S.

Lin, J.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lobach, A. S.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez, A.

Mata, J.

Mateos, X.

Mitsu, H.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nasibulin, A. G.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Oh, K.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Perebeinos, V.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photoincs and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Pujol, M. C.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

Rotermund, F.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sato, Y.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, A.

Schmidt, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shirato, T.

Shohda, F.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Song, Y.-W.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sun, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. L.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Tatsuura, S.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tausenev, A. V.

Tian, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wu, X.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yim, J. H.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Adv. Mater.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15(6), 534–537 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photoincs and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25(19), 1415–1417 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 microm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Fong, K. Kikuchi, C. S. Goh, S. Y. Set, R. Grange, M. Haiml, A. Schlatter, and U. Keller, “Solid-state Er:Yb:glass laser mode-locked by using single-wall carbon nanotube thin film,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 38–40 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 729–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and F. Rotermund, “Mode-locked self-starting Cr:forsterite laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2449–2451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. S. Goh, K. Kikuchi, S. Y. Set, D. Tanaka, T. Kotake, M. Jablonski, S. Yamashita, and T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a ytterbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon-nanotube-based mode-locker with ultra-wide absorption band,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, paper CThG2 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication process of SWCNT/PMMA film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Interaction scheme of the SWCNT with guided mode in the HOF. The cross-section of the HOF is also described in the figure. (b) Calculated group velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fundamental mode in the ring core fiber of the HOF. Inset figure shows the calculated mode-field distribution of the fundamental mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross-sectional image of the HOF used in the experiment (b) Microscopic image of the lateral cross-section of the HOF filled with SWCNT/PMMA solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the fs fiber laser using the SWCNT-filled HOF. Inset figure shows the spliced image between the normal SMF and HOF where adiabatic mode transition occurs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output pulse train of the laser shows the repetition rate of 18.5 MHz. (b) Measured optical spectrum and pulse duration (inset) of the mode-locked fiber laser

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