Abstract

We present a novel sample arm arrangement for dynamic optical coherence elastography based on excitation by a ring actuator. The actuator enables coincident excitation and imaging to be performed on a sample, facilitating in vivo operation. Sub-micrometer vibrations in the audio frequency range were coupled to samples that were imaged using optical coherence tomography. The resulting vibration amplitude and microstrain maps are presented for bilayer silicone phantoms and multiple skin sites on a human subject. Contrast based on the differing elastic properties is shown, notably between the epidermis and dermis. The results constitute the first demonstration of a practical means of performing in vivo dynamic optical coherence elastography on a human subject.

© 2009 OSA

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  7. A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. Liang, A. L. Oldenburg, V. Crecea, E. J. Chaney, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical micro-scale mapping of dynamic biomechanical tissue properties,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11052–11065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng. 12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

K. J. Parker, L. S. Taylor, S. Gracewski, and D. J. Rubens, “A unified view of imaging the elastic properties of tissue,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 2705–2712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. C. Chan, A. H. Chau, W. C. Karl, S. Nadkarni, A. S. Khalil, N. Iftimia, M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, M. R. Kaazempur-Mofrad, and B. E. Bouma, “OCT-based arterial elastography: robust estimation exploiting tissue biomechanics,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4558–4572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fatemi, A. Manduca, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Imaging elastic properties of biological tissues by low-frequency harmonic vibration,” Proc. IEEE 91(10), 1503–1519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zvyagin, E. D. J. Smith, and D. D. Sampson, “Delay and dispersion characteristics of a frequency-domain optical delay line for scanning interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(2), 333–341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. H. Zhao, Z. P. Chen, Z. H. Ding, H. W. Ren, and J. S. Nelson, “Real-time phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography by use of optical Hilbert transformation,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 98–100 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Edney and J. T. Walsh, “Acoustic modulation and photon-phonon scattering in optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 40(34), 6381–6388 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. Silver, J. W. Freeman, and D. DeVore, “Viscoelastic properties of human skin and processed dermis,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 18–23 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

J. M. Schmitt, “OCT elastography: imaging microscopic deformation and strain of tissue,” Opt. Express 3(6), 199–211 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

1996

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. Kenneth Jenkins, and W. D. O’Brien Jr, “Young’s modulus measurements of soft tissues with application to elastic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43(1), 191–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Gao, K. J. Parker, R. M. Lerner, and S. F. Levinson, “Imaging of elastic properties of tissue--a review,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22(8), 959–977 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1983

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras., “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amromin, E.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisaillon, C.-E.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buras, E. M.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras., “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cespedes, I.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Céspedes, E. I.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R. C.

Chaney, E. J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chau, A. H.

Chen, E. J.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. Kenneth Jenkins, and W. D. O’Brien Jr, “Young’s modulus measurements of soft tissues with application to elastic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43(1), 191–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. P.

Chrisman, D. A.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras., “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

De Korte, C. L.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVore, D.

F. H. Silver, J. W. Freeman, and D. DeVore, “Viscoelastic properties of human skin and processed dermis,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 18–23 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Z. H.

Doyley, M. M.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dresner, M. A.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Dufour, M.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, D. D.

Edney, P. A.

Ehman, R. L.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everall, J. D.

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fatemi, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fatemi, A. Manduca, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Imaging elastic properties of biological tissues by low-frequency harmonic vibration,” Proc. IEEE 91(10), 1503–1519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Felmlee, J. P.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, J. W.

F. H. Silver, J. W. Freeman, and D. DeVore, “Viscoelastic properties of human skin and processed dermis,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 18–23 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1221–1223 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, K. J. Parker, R. M. Lerner, and S. F. Levinson, “Imaging of elastic properties of tissue--a review,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22(8), 959–977 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garra, B. S.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gracewski, S.

K. J. Parker, L. S. Taylor, S. Gracewski, and D. J. Rubens, “A unified view of imaging the elastic properties of tissue,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 2705–2712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenleaf, J. F.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fatemi, A. Manduca, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Imaging elastic properties of biological tissues by low-frequency harmonic vibration,” Proc. IEEE 91(10), 1503–1519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, T.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

Hartmann, L. C.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Insana, M.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, A.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemec, G. B. E.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaazempur-Mofrad, M. R.

Kallel, F.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kamma, H.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karl, W. C.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kennedy, B. F.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenneth Jenkins, W.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. Kenneth Jenkins, and W. D. O’Brien Jr, “Young’s modulus measurements of soft tissues with application to elastic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43(1), 191–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, A. S.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, H. J.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng. 12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krouskop, T. A.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

Kruse, S. A.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kugel, J. L.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lerner, R. M.

L. Gao, K. J. Parker, R. M. Lerner, and S. F. Levinson, “Imaging of elastic properties of tissue--a review,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22(8), 959–977 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levinson, S. F.

L. Gao, K. J. Parker, R. M. Lerner, and S. F. Levinson, “Imaging of elastic properties of tissue--a review,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22(8), 959–977 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Liang, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomas, D. J.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z. H.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macielko, R.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahowald, J. L.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manduca, A.

M. Fatemi, A. Manduca, and J. F. Greenleaf, “Imaging elastic properties of biological tissues by low-frequency harmonic vibration,” Proc. IEEE 91(10), 1503–1519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matip, R.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumura, T.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McBride, T. O.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKnight, A. L.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchalin, J.-P.

C.-E. Bisaillon, G. Lamouche, R. Macielko, M. Dufour, and J.-P. Monchalin, “Deformable and durable phantoms with controlled density of scatterers,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 237–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Morsy, H. A.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, R. Matip, G. Moussa, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 44(3), 145–152 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muthupillai, R.

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S.

Nelson, J. S.

Novakofski, J.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. Kenneth Jenkins, and W. D. O’Brien Jr, “Young’s modulus measurements of soft tissues with application to elastic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43(1), 191–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien Jr, W. D.

E. J. Chen, J. Novakofski, W. Kenneth Jenkins, and W. D. O’Brien Jr, “Young’s modulus measurements of soft tissues with application to elastic imaging,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43(1), 191–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, H.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Oliphant, T. E.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophir, J.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, K. J.

K. J. Parker, L. S. Taylor, S. Gracewski, and D. J. Rubens, “A unified view of imaging the elastic properties of tissue,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 2705–2712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, K. J. Parker, R. M. Lerner, and S. F. Levinson, “Imaging of elastic properties of tissue--a review,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 22(8), 959–977 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasterkamp, G.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ponnekanti, H.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, T. O. McBride, M. M. Doyley, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Near-infrared breast tomography calibration with optoelastic tissue simulating phantoms,” J. Electron. Imaging 12(4), 613–620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Potts, R. O.

R. O. Potts, D. A. Chrisman, and E. M. Buras., “The dynamic mechanical properties of human skin in vivo,” J. Biomech. 16(6), 365–372 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H. W.

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska, N. A. Patel, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomographic elastography technique for measuring deformation and strain of atherosclerotic tissues,” Heart 90(5), 556–562 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossman, P. J.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

R. Muthupillai, D. J. Lomas, P. J. Rossman, J. F. Greenleaf, A. Manduca, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography by direct visualization of propagating acoustic strain waves,” Science 269(5232), 1854–1857 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubens, D. J.

K. J. Parker, L. S. Taylor, S. Gracewski, and D. J. Rubens, “A unified view of imaging the elastic properties of tissue,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 2705–2712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

S. G. Adie, B. F. Kennedy, J. J. Armstrong, S. A. Alexandrov, and D. D. Sampson, “Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(10), 3129–3139 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zvyagin, E. D. J. Smith, and D. D. Sampson, “Delay and dispersion characteristics of a frequency-domain optical delay line for scanning interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(2), 333–341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, O.

Schmitt, J. M.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiina, T.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Silver, F. H.

F. H. Silver, J. W. Freeman, and D. DeVore, “Viscoelastic properties of human skin and processed dermis,” Skin Res. Technol. 7(1), 18–23 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. D. J.

Stack, R.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng. 12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, W.

H. J. Ko, W. Tan, R. Stack, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence elastography of engineered and developing tissue,” Tissue Eng. 12(1), 63–73 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, L. S.

K. J. Parker, L. S. Taylor, S. Gracewski, and D. J. Rubens, “A unified view of imaging the elastic properties of tissue,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(5), 2705–2712 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tohno, E.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueno, E.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Der Steen, A. F. W.

C. L. De Korte, A. F. W. Van Der Steen, E. I. Céspedes, and G. Pasterkamp, “Intravascular ultrasound elastography in human arteries: initial experience in vitro,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(3), 401–408 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

Wang, R. K.

S. J. Kirkpatrick, R. K. Wang, and D. D. Duncan, “OCT-based elastography for large and small deformations,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11585–11597 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, T. M.

T. A. Krouskop, T. M. Wheeler, F. Kallel, B. S. Garra, and T. Hall, “Elastic moduli of breast and prostate tissues under compression,” Ultrason. Imaging 20(4), 260–274 (1998).
[PubMed]

Whitton, J. T.

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamakawa, M.

A. Itoh, E. Ueno, E. Tohno, H. Kamma, H. Takahashi, T. Shiina, M. Yamakawa, and T. Matsumura, “Breast disease: clinical application of US elastography for diagnosis,” Radiology 239(2), 341–350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdi, Y.

J. Ophir, I. Cespedes, H. Ponnekanti, Y. Yazdi, and X. Li, “Elastography: a quantitative method for imaging the elasticity of biological tissues,” Ultrason. Imaging 13(2), 186–210 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. H.

Zvyagin, A. V.

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol.

A. L. McKnight, J. L. Kugel, P. J. Rossman, A. Manduca, L. C. Hartmann, and R. L. Ehman, “MR elastography of breast cancer: preliminary results,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(6), 1411–1417 (2002).
[PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.

J. F. Greenleaf, M. Fatemi, and M. Insana, “Selected methods for imaging elastic properties of biological tissues,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 5(1), 57–78 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Wang, Z. H. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Dermatol.

J. T. Whitton and J. D. Everall, “The thickness of the epidermis,” Br. J. Dermatol. 89(5), 467–476 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatology

M. Mogensen, H. A. Morsy, L. Thrane, and G. B. E. Jemec, “Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology 217(1), 14–20 (2008).
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Heart

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the fiber-based OCT system employing balanced optical quadrature detection. The sample arm setup is shown for (b) Phantom and (c) In vivo skin measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Young’s modulus for different ratios of resin and catalyst measured using a standard compression test; (b) Stress-strain curve measured for a silicone phantom with a mixing ratio of 15:1. The inset shows the region of the curve used to measure the Young’s modulus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

. (a) TD-OCT; (b) Vibration amplitude; and (c) Strain B-scans of a bilayer phantom with different scatterer concentrations in each layer. In (c), layers are demarcated by the red curve. The scale bar represents 250 μm × 250 μm. In (d), the average strain in the first layer (red) and second layer (blue) is plotted for each A-scan.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

. (a) TD-OCT; (b) Vibration amplitude; and (c) Strain B-scans of a bilayer phantom with the same scatterer concentration in each layer. In (c), layers are demarcated by the red curve. The scale bar represents 250 μm × 250 μm. In (d) the average strain introduced in the first layer (red) and second layer (blue) is plotted for each A-scan.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

. In vivo B-scans of the side of the index finger: (a) SS-OCT; (b) Vibration amplitude; and (c) Strain, with layers demarcated by the red curve. Scale bar represents 250 μm × 250 μm. In (d) the average strain in the epidermis (red) and dermis (blue) is plotted for each A-scan.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

. In vivo measurements of a laceration on the index finger; (a) Photograph; (b) SS-OCT; (c) Vibration amplitude; and (d) Strain B-scan images, with layers demarcated by the red curve. Scale bar for (b)-(d) represents 250 μm × 250 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Measured strain in the epidermis and dermis and the thickness (optical pathlength) of the combined stratum corneum and epidermis.

Equations (1)

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ε ( z ) = d 2 d 1 Δ z ,

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