Abstract

Lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) observed on the metal films is unusual because it violates a principle that the LPEs are always observed on the surface of a semiconductor. Compared with early studies, we have realized an obvious metal film LPE in a metal-semiconductor (MS) structure. By further arguing with experimental results, this work also intensively elucidates many features of LPE which the early models never touched upon. All the data and analyses in this study indicate that metal side LPE in MS structure has some natural superiorities to the semiconductor side LPE and may open many exciting opportunities for realizing multifunctional devices.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K.-J. Jin, K. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 1022 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Optimizing the response of Schottky barrier position sensitive detectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(22), 3180–3184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, and Y. X. Xia, “Large lateral photoeffect observed in metal-semiconductor junctions of CoxMnyO films and Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5580–5583 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. C. Card and E. H. Rhoderick, “Studies of tunnel MOS diodes I. Interface effects in silicon Schottky diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 4(10), 1589–1601 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. J. Charlson and J. C. Lien, “An Al p-silicon MOS photovoltaic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 3982–3987 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Lillington and W. G. Townsend, “Effects of interfacial oxide layers on the performance of silicon Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(2), 97–98 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. B. Godfrey and M. A. Green, “655 mV open-circuit voltage, 17.6% efficient silicon MIS solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 790–793 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. K. Srivastava, S. Guha, and B. W. Arora, “Mechanism of open-circuit voltage enhancement in metalinsulator-semiconductor GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 43–45 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors 14, 320 (1971).
  24. H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).
  25. J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Improved position sensitive detectors using high resistivity substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(16), 165106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Improved position sensitive detectors using high resistivity substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(16), 165106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K.-J. Jin, K. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, and Y. X. Xia, “Large lateral photoeffect observed in metal-semiconductor junctions of CoxMnyO films and Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5580–5583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Optimizing the response of Schottky barrier position sensitive detectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(22), 3180–3184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 1022 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. H. Willens, “Photoelectronic and electronic properties of Ti/Si amorphous superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(11), 663–665 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Willens, B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “High resolution photovoltaic position sensing with Ti/Si superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(24), 1647–1648 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

A. K. Srivastava, S. Guha, and B. W. Arora, “Mechanism of open-circuit voltage enhancement in metalinsulator-semiconductor GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 43–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. B. Godfrey and M. A. Green, “655 mV open-circuit voltage, 17.6% efficient silicon MIS solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 790–793 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

D. R. Lillington and W. G. Townsend, “Effects of interfacial oxide layers on the performance of silicon Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(2), 97–98 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

1975

E. J. Charlson and J. C. Lien, “An Al p-silicon MOS photovoltaic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 3982–3987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. C. Card and E. H. Rhoderick, “Studies of tunnel MOS diodes I. Interface effects in silicon Schottky diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 4(10), 1589–1601 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors 14, 320 (1971).

Arora, B. W.

A. K. Srivastava, S. Guha, and B. W. Arora, “Mechanism of open-circuit voltage enhancement in metalinsulator-semiconductor GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 43–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Willens, B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “High resolution photovoltaic position sensing with Ti/Si superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(24), 1647–1648 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brasen, D.

R. H. Willens, B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “High resolution photovoltaic position sensing with Ti/Si superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(24), 1647–1648 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Card, H. C.

H. C. Card and E. H. Rhoderick, “Studies of tunnel MOS diodes I. Interface effects in silicon Schottky diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 4(10), 1589–1601 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Charlson, E. J.

E. J. Charlson and J. C. Lien, “An Al p-silicon MOS photovoltaic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 3982–3987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dai, N.

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Florez, L. T.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gilmore, D. L.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Godfrey, R. B.

R. B. Godfrey and M. A. Green, “655 mV open-circuit voltage, 17.6% efficient silicon MIS solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 790–793 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

R. B. Godfrey and M. A. Green, “655 mV open-circuit voltage, 17.6% efficient silicon MIS solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34(11), 790–793 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. Z.

Guha, S.

A. K. Srivastava, S. Guha, and B. W. Arora, “Mechanism of open-circuit voltage enhancement in metalinsulator-semiconductor GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 43–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Improved position sensitive detectors using high resistivity substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(16), 165106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Optimizing the response of Schottky barrier position sensitive detectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(22), 3180–3184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 1022 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G. J.

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, K.-J.

K.-J. Jin, K. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Q. Y.

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kabra, D.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, L. Z.

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

R. H. Willens, B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “High resolution photovoltaic position sensing with Ti/Si superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(24), 1647–1648 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Lateral photoeffect in thin amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti grown on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(22), 1537–1539 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

K.-J. Jin, K. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lien, J. C.

E. J. Charlson and J. C. Lien, “An Al p-silicon MOS photovoltaic cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), 3982–3987 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lillington, D. R.

D. R. Lillington and W. G. Townsend, “Effects of interfacial oxide layers on the performance of silicon Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(2), 97–98 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J.

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Improved position sensitive detectors using high resistivity substrates,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(16), 165106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Optimizing the response of Schottky barrier position sensitive detectors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(22), 3180–3184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Position-Sensitive Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 13(12-13), 1022 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Henry and J. Livingstone, “A comparative study of position-sensitive detectors based on Schottky barrier crystalline and amorphous silicon structures,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 12(7), 387–393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-B.

K.-J. Jin, K. Zhao, H.-B. Lu, L. Liao, and G.-Z. Yang, “Dember effect induced photovoltage in perovskite p-n heterojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. J.

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, T.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Meynadier, M. H.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Narayan, K. S.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors 14, 320 (1971).

Rhoderick, E. H.

H. C. Card and E. H. Rhoderick, “Studies of tunnel MOS diodes I. Interface effects in silicon Schottky diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 4(10), 1589–1601 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblum, M. D.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M. L.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sadamatsu, H.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Singh, Th. B.

D. Kabra, Th. B. Singh, and K. S. Narayan, “Semiconducting-polymer-based position-sensitive detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(21), 5073 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, A. K.

A. K. Srivastava, S. Guha, and B. W. Arora, “Mechanism of open-circuit voltage enhancement in metalinsulator-semiconductor GaAs solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(1), 43–45 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tabatabaie, N.

N. Tabatabaie, M. H. Meynadier, R. E. Nahory, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Large lateral photovoltaic effect in modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55(8), 792 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

H. Niu, T. Matsuda, H. Sadamatsu, and M. Takai, “Application of Lateral Photovoltaic Effect to the Measurement of the Physical Quantities of P-N Junctions—Sheet Resistivity and Junction Conductance of N2+ Implanted Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 4 (1976).

Townsend, W. G.

D. R. Lillington and W. G. Townsend, “Effects of interfacial oxide layers on the performance of silicon Schottky-barrier solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(2), 97–98 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tufts, B. J.

A. Kumar, M. D. Rosenblum, D. L. Gilmore, B. J. Tufts, M. L. Rosenbluth, and N. S. Lewis, “Fabrication of minority-carrier-limited n-Si/insulator/metal diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1919–1921 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. X.

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, and Y. X. Xia, “Large lateral photoeffect observed in metal-semiconductor junctions of CoxMnyO films and Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5580–5583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. Q.

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Kong, H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, J. J. Lu, Y. X. Xia, G. J. Hu, N. Dai, and Z. H. Wang, “Integrated properties of large lateral photovoltage and positive magnetoresistance in Co/Mn/Co/c-Si structures,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 052003 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, and Y. X. Xia, “Large lateral photoeffect observed in metal-semiconductor junctions of CoxMnyO films and Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5580–5583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, Y. Z. Gu, Y. X. Xia, and Z. H. Wang, “The Co-film-thickness dependent lateral photoeffect in Co-SiO2-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structures,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3798–3806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. C. Zhao, and Y. X. Xia, “Large lateral photoeffect observed in metal-semiconductor junctions of CoxMnyO films and Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5580–5583 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, R. H. Willens, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “Wavelength dependence of the lateral photovoltage in amorphous superlattice films of Si and Ti,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(23), 1608–1610 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Willens, B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, and D. Brasen, “High resolution photovoltaic position sensing with Ti/Si superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(24), 1647–1648 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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S. Q. Xiao, H. Wang, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, J. J. Lu, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “A novel position-sensitive detector based on metal–oxide–semiconductor structures of Co–SiO2–Si,” N. J. Phys. 10(3), 033018 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, S. Q. Xiao, C. Q. Yu, Y. X. Xia, Q. Y. Jin, and Z. H. Wang, “Correlation of magnetoresistance and lateral photovoltage in Co3Mn2O/SiO2/Si metal–oxide–semiconductor structure,” N. J. Phys. 10(9), 093006 (2008).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) (Color online) The transverse I-V curves of Ti/Si, Co/Si, and Cu/Si structures. The inset shows the schematic circuit of the sample measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) The experimental results of LPE in the (a) metal side and (b) semiconductor side of Ti/Si, Co/Si and Cu/Si structures, respectively. The distance of two contacts is 3.2 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) The schematic electron motion profile in MS structure illuminated by a light spot. The red arrows represent the direction of electron movement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) The schematic energy band profile in MS structure illuminated by a light. The red lines represent the Fermi levels, and the gray (and black) part represents the equilibrium (non-equilibrium) electrons. Please note, the Fermi level at position 2’ (or 2) has a decisive influence on LPV in the metal (or semiconductor) side.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) The experimental results of LPE in the metal side of Ti/Si structure, in which the distances between AB ( = 2L) are 2.4 mm, 3.2mm, 4.0 mm, 5.0 mm and 6.0 mm, respectively. (b) The case of L = 3.0 mm. (c) Experimental and theoretical results of sensitivities and nonlinerities in Ti/Si structure with different L. (d) The specific data of the experiments.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Position sensitivities in metal side of Ti/Si structures as a function of metal thickness. (b) Schematic diagram of thickness effect on LPV at three typical thicknesses.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ m = D m τ m = 3 k B T τ m 8 π q 2 ρ m ( 2 m E F 0 2 ) 3 2
L P V m = E F m ( r ) E F m ( r ) q = K m N ( 0 ) [ exp ( | L x | λ m ) exp ( | L + x | λ m ) ]
L P V m = 2 K m N ( 0 ) λ m exp ( L λ m ) x
L P V s = 2 K s N ( 0 ) λ s exp ( L λ s ) x
Nonlinearity m δ m 2 × rms deviation Measured full scale = 1 3 7 ( L λ m ) 2
Nonlinearity s δ s = 1 3 7 ( L λ s ) 2
L o p t = 3 7 δ 0 λ m
Sensitivity m κ m = 2 K m N ( 0 ) λ m exp ( L λ m )
Sensitivity s κ s = 2 K s N ( 0 ) λ s exp ( L λ s )
Sensitivity m Sensitivity s κ K m λ s K s λ m = C T λ m
κ m E F 0 1 4 ρ m 1 2
κ m ( d m ) = 2 K m N ( 0 ) α ( d m d 0 ) exp [ L α ( d m d 0 ) ]

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