Abstract

The paper presents polymeric waveguide dye laser with distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) grating or distributed feedback (DFB) resonator. DBR grating and DFB resonator were fabricated on a surface of SU-8 2002 photoresist polymer using interference of laser beams. Polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) waveguides dispersed with laser dye of 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethylamino)-coumarin (Coumarin 6) and tris(8-quinolinolate)aluminum (Alq) as a host were used. Single mode of lasing with TE mode was measured from the polymeric waveguide with DBR grating and DFB resonator. Threshold of lasing with DBR grating is lower than that with DFB resonator. For PVB/Alq/Coumarin 6 waveguide, 0.1 mJ cm-2 pulse-1 of threshold was measured with DBR grating and 0.3 mJ cm-2 pulse-1 with DFB resonator. Slope efficiency between 0.06 and 0.09 % was measured for PS/Alq/Coumarin 6 waveguide and that between 0.07 and 0.15 % for PVB/Alq/Coumarin 6 waveguide.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbell, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Tsutsumi and M. Yamamoto, "Threshold reduction of tunable organic laser using effective energy transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 842-845 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with threshold in the nJ range n an organic guest-host polymeric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 45, 5748-5751 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, "Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulse pumped laser emission from all-plastic organic waveguide with distributed feedback resonator," Opt. Commun. 281, 2179-2183 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, "Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulse pumped laser emission from all-plastic organic waveguide with distributed feedback resonator," Opt. Commun. 281, 2179-2183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbell, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujihara, A.

N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with threshold in the nJ range n an organic guest-host polymeric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 45, 5748-5751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, D.

Heliotis, G.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawahira, T.

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oki, Y.

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, W.

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbell, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, M.

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, "Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulse pumped laser emission from all-plastic organic waveguide with distributed feedback resonator," Opt. Commun. 281, 2179-2183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, "Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulse pumped laser emission from all-plastic organic waveguide with distributed feedback resonator," Opt. Commun. 281, 2179-2183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and M. Yamamoto, "Threshold reduction of tunable organic laser using effective energy transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 842-845 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, A. Fujihara, and D. Hayashi, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with threshold in the nJ range n an organic guest-host polymeric waveguide," Appl. Opt. 45, 5748-5751 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turnbell, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbell, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, R.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Zhang, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one- and two-dimensional distributed feedback," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 91-97 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Watanabe, Y. Oki, M. Maeda, and T. Omatsu, "Waveguide dye laser including a SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed random scattering active layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, "Nanoimprinted circular grating distributed feedback dye laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, T. Kawahira, and W. Sakai, "Amplified spontaneous emission and distributed feedback lasing from conjugated compound in various polymer matrices,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2533-2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi and A. Fujihara, "Tunable distributed feedback lasing with narrowed emission using holographic dynamic gratings in polymeric waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbell, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers using a broadband, red polyfluorene gain medium," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6959-6965 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, "Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulse pumped laser emission from all-plastic organic waveguide with distributed feedback resonator," Opt. Commun. 281, 2179-2183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

N. Tsutsumi and M. Takeuchi, and W. Sakai, "All-plastic organic dye laser with distributed feedback resonator structure," Thin Solid Films 516, 2783-2787 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM cross-section image of the rippled periodic structure fabricated on a surface of the SU-8 2002 photoresist polymer by the interference beams at incidence angle of 30.5 °. Grating pitch of 342.4 nm and amplitude of ca. 6 nm are measured.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of polymer waveguide laser with (a) DFB, (b) DBR-DFB and (c) DBR. Double ended arrow is the distance between the emission edge and the edge of rippled structure (grating).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lasing spectra of waveguide and device geometry with different grating position. (a) Grating position: 0 mm, DFB lasing, (b) Grating position : 3.5 mm, DBR/DFB lasing, (c) Grating position: 6.5 mm, DBR lasing, (d) Grating position: 10 mm, DBR lasing for PS/Alq/Coumarin 6 and ASE for PVB/Alq/Coumarin 6. Green line in device geometry shows activated area by pump laser. Shadowed half circle is area fabricated grating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots of threshold of lasing as a function of grating position. (a) PVB/Alq/Coumarin 6, (b) PS/Alq/Coumarin 6.

Equations (3)

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n 2 ( λ ) 1 = q 1 λ 0 2 1 λ 2 + A
Λ th = λ p 2 sin θ
λ L = 2 n eff Λ th m

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