Abstract

The supercontinuum generated with a linearly polarized near-IR (775nm) pump in rotated calcium fluoride is shown to have intrinsic intensity and polarization modulations. To mask the rotation of the crystal plate, we circularly polarize the pump and find greatly improved output parameters for the generated white light: intensity fluctuations of 0.5% limited only by pump laser stability, and a circular polarization state—matching that of the pump—over the entire visible spectrum. This polarization conservation allows the return of the supercontinuum to a linear polarization state or to a pair of linearly polarized beams with correlated intensity fluctuations. We were also able to extend the supercontinuum source deep into the ultraviolet with a frequency doubled (387nm) pump, to serve as an new source to probe the region where most molecular photochemistry occurs.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region of 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Hundertmark, S. Rammler, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and P. St. J. Russell, "Octave-spanning supercontinuum generated in SF6-glass PCF by a 1060 nm mode-locked fibre laser delivering 20 pJ per pulse," Opt. Express 17, 1919-1924 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Buchvarov, A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, "Toward and understanding of white-light generation in cubic media -polarization properties across the entire spectral range," Opt. Lett. 32, 1539-1541 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Kartazaev and R. R. Alfano, "Polarization properties of SC generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 281, 463-468 (2008).
  14. A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Buchvarov, A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, "Toward and understanding of white-light generation in cubic media -polarization properties across the entire spectral range," Opt. Lett. 32, 1539-1541 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Depolarization of white light generated by ultrashort laser pulses in optical media," Opt. Lett. 31, 2184-2186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, "Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

1989

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region of 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ak¨ozbek, N.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

V. Kartazaev and R. R. Alfano, "Polarization properties of SC generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 281, 463-468 (2008).

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region of 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baltu?ska, A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchvarov, I.

I. Buchvarov, A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, "Toward and understanding of white-light generation in cubic media -polarization properties across the entire spectral range," Opt. Lett. 32, 1539-1541 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carroll, E. C.

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dartigalongue, T.

T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Boni, L.

Deepak, K. L. N.

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Depolarization of white light generated by ultrashort laser pulses in optical media," Opt. Lett. 31, 2184-2186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dwayne Miller, R. J.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, "Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiebig, T.

I. Buchvarov, A. Trifonov, and T. Fiebig, "Toward and understanding of white-light generation in cubic media -polarization properties across the entire spectral range," Opt. Lett. 32, 1539-1541 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Florean, A. C.

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuß, W.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

Hern’andez, F. E.

Holzwarth, R.

Huber, R.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hundertmark, H.

Hutchings, D. C.

Karolczak, J.

M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kartazaev, V.

V. Kartazaev and R. R. Alfano, "Polarization properties of SC generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 281, 463-468 (2008).

Kawano, H.

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosma, K.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R. S. S.

Lewis, K. L. M.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Depolarization of white light generated by ultrashort laser pulses in optical media," Opt. Lett. 31, 2184-2186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Megerle, U.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, J. A.

Nagura, C.

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagy, A. M.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, "Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naskrecki, R.

M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niezborala, C.

T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Panja, S.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, B. J.

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorenko, V. I.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, "Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pugliesi, I.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rajgara, F. A.

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Depolarization of white light generated by ultrashort laser pulses in optical media," Opt. Lett. 31, 2184-2186 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rammler, S.

Rao, D. N.

Riedle, E.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sailer, C. F.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Satzger, H.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, W. E.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schriever, C.

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sension, R. J.

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region of 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tekavec, P. F.

Toro, C.

Trifonov, A.

Trushin, S. A.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzankov, P.

P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wachtveitl, J.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilken, T.

Zinth, W.

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ziolek, M.

M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

U. Megerle, I. Pugliesi, C. Schriever, C. F. Sailer, and E. Riedle, "Sub-50 fs broadband absorption spectroscopy with tunable excitation: putting the analysis of ultrafast molecular dynamics on solid ground," Appl. Phys. B 96, 215-231 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dharmadhikari, F. A. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Tzankov, T. Fiebig, and I. Buchvarov, "Tunable femtosecond pulses in the near-ultraviolet from ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 517-519 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Midorikawa, H. Kawano, A. Suda, C. Nagura, and M. Obara, "Polarization properties of ultrafast white-light continuum generated in condensed media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 923-925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

V. I. Prokhorenko, A. M. Nagy, and R. J. Dwayne Miller, "Coherent control of the population transfer in complex solvated molecules at weak excitation. An experimental study," J. Chem. Phys. 122, 184502 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Carroll, B. J. Pearson, A. C. Florean, P. H. Bucksbaum, and R. J. Sension, "Spectral phase effects on nonlinear resonant photochemistry of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 124, 114506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuˇska,W. Fuß, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8, 177 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Ak¨ozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziolek, R. Naskrecki, and J. Karolczak, "Some temporal and spectral properties of femtosecond supercontinuum important in pump-probe spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 241, 221-229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, H. Satzger, W. Zinth, and J. Wachtveitl, "Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers with output parameters improved by the application of a white light continuum generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 194, 443-448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Kartazaev and R. R. Alfano, "Polarization properties of SC generated in CaF2," Opt. Commun. 281, 463-468 (2008).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.

T. Dartigalongue, C. Niezborala and F. Hache, "Subpicosecond UV spectroscopy of carbonmonoxy-myoglobin: absorption and circular dichroism studies," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1611-1615 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. K. Dharmadhikari, K. Alti, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Control of the onset of filamentation in condensed media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033811 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region of 4000 to 7000 °A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the supercontinuum generation setup. Pump pulses pass through a variable OD filter (VOD), a quarter waveplate (QWP), and an iris diaphragm (ID) before being focussed by a lens L into a calcium fluoride plate. The generated supercontinuum is collected by an off-axis parabolic mirror (OAPM), and sent through an achromatic quarter waveplate (AQWP). For measurements with linearly polarized pump pulses, all QWPs are removed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Spectrally integrated intensity of the broadband supercontinuum generated in rotated CaF2 during one period of rotation (~4000 pulses) with a linearly polarized 1.2µJ 775nm pump. Complete modulation in the white light intensity is observed with a periodicity of π/2, and intense spikes are present at the threshold for white light generation. b) Bandpass filter analysis of the threshold spikes for the 1.2µJ pump pulse, each trace normalized to the θ=0 value. The spectrum is dominated by longer wavelengths, with relatively little contribution in the blue-green.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization analysis of the generated white light for a 2.0µJ pump pulse (intensity measurement without polarizer shown at top). Both s- and p-polarized components of the supercontinuum are present and are anti-correlated as a function of rotation. The oscillatory nature of the generated intensity as a function of plate rotation has been attributed to the nonlinear susceptibility, the functional form of which (see Eqs. 1, 2) is shown as an overlay on the s-polarized data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured polarization ratio and white light spectrum integrated over one period of rotation for a linearly polarized 2.0µJ pump pulse. A ratio of ρ≈10 is measured, and no strong wavelength-dependent trend in depolarization is observed.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrally integrated intensity of the broadband supercontinuum generated in rotated CaF2 during one period of rotation (~4000 pulses) with a circularly polarized pump pulse. The standard deviation is 0.5% of the mean, shown as dashed lines. Inset: histogram with Gaussian fit to the distribution.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polarization ratio for the generated supercontinuum over the entire visible spectrum over one rotation with a circularly polarized pump. A well-defined circular polarization is observed, leading to ρ=1 across the entire spectrum (“circularly polarized” curve). After introducing the AQWP (“linearly polarized” curve), conversion from circular to linear polarization with ratio of ~103 over the entire visible spectrum (380nm-750nm) is achieved.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured ultraviolet spectrum of the supercontinuum generated with the second harmonic pump source. A short-pass filter transmitting below λ=350nm (dashed line) is used to remove the pump, and highlight the extension of the white light source into the deep UV.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ( 3 ) ( θ ) = 3 χ 1122 ( 3 ) + ( χ 1111 ( 3 ) 3 χ 1122 ( 3 ) ) [ cos 2 ( 2 θ ) + 1 2 ] .
P cr = λ 2 2 π n 0 n 2 ,
ρ ( λ ) = I s ( λ ) I p ( λ ) ,

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