Abstract

We demonstrate controllable structural color based on periodic nanopatterned 2D lattices in pure protein films of silk fibroin. We show here periodic lattices in silk fibroin films with feature sizes of hundreds of nanometers that exhibit different colors as a function of varying lattice spacing. Further, when varying the index of refraction contrast between the nanopatterned lattice and its surrounding environment by applying liquids on top of the lattices, colorimetric shifts are observed. The effect is characterized experimentally and theoretically and a simple example of glucose concentration sensing is presented. This is the first example of a functional sensor based on silk fibroin optics.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5544–5555 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. V. Boriskina and L. Dal Negro, “Sensitive label-free biosensing using critical modes in aperiodic photonic structures,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12511–12522 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3741–3753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

S. V. Boriskina and L. Dal Negro, “Sensitive label-free biosensing using critical modes in aperiodic photonic structures,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12511–12522 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “A new route for silk,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 641–643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5544–5555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, W. Li, J. A. Hagen, Y. Zhou, D. Klotzkin, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Photoluminescence and lasing from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) thin films doped with sulforhodamine,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1507–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-S. Cheng, Y.-Q. Chen, and C.-J. Lu, “Organic vapour sensing using localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum of metallic nanoparticles self assemble monolayer,” Talanta 73(2), 358–365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Altman, G. H.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

Calabro, T.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cebe, P.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-Q.

C.-S. Cheng, Y.-Q. Chen, and C.-J. Lu, “Organic vapour sensing using localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum of metallic nanoparticles self assemble monolayer,” Talanta 73(2), 358–365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C.-S.

C.-S. Cheng, Y.-Q. Chen, and C.-J. Lu, “Organic vapour sensing using localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum of metallic nanoparticles self assemble monolayer,” Talanta 73(2), 358–365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

Dallapiccola, R.

Diaz, F.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drummy, L. F.

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fridrikh, S. V.

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Georgakoudi, I.

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3741–3753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dallapiccola, A. Gopinath, F. Stellacci, and L. Dal Negro, “Quasi-periodic distribution of plasmon modes in two-dimensional Fibonacci arrays of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5544–5555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gronowicz, G.

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grote, J. G.

Gunawidjaja, R.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M. K.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, J. A.

Horan, R. L.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jakuba, C.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H. J.

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, H.-J.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kadakia, M. P.

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “A new route for silk,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 641–643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karageorgiou, V.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khokhar, S. K.

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, U. J.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klotzkin, D.

Lawrence, B. D.

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, W. X.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-J.

C.-S. Cheng, Y.-Q. Chen, and C.-J. Lu, “Organic vapour sensing using localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum of metallic nanoparticles self assemble monolayer,” Talanta 73(2), 358–365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Q.

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, D. W.

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, M. B.

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naik, R. R.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, H. L.

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “A new route for silk,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 641–643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perry, H.

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. M.

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Deterministic aperiodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Opt. Express 17(5), 3741–3753 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, J.

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rutledge, G. C.

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, D.

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sofia, S.

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sowards, L. A.

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spaeth, H.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, W. Li, J. A. Hagen, Y. Zhou, D. Klotzkin, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Photoluminescence and lasing from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) thin films doped with sulforhodamine,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1507–1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stellacci, F.

Tsukruk, V. V.

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uppal, N.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valluzzi, R.

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, X.

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, P.

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Zhang, N.

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, H.

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

H.-J. Jin, J. Park, V. Karageorgiou, U. J. Kim, R. Valluzzi, P. Cebe, and D. L. Kaplan, “Water-Stable Silk Films with Reduced β-Sheet Content,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1241–1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Jiang, X. Wang, R. Gunawidjaja, Y. H. Lin, M. K. Gupta, D. L. Kaplan, R. R. Naik, and V. V. Tsukruk, “Mechanical Properties of Robust Ultrathin Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(13), 2229–2237 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Perry, A. Gopinath, D. L. Kaplan, L. D. Negro, and F. G. Omenetto, “Nano- and Micropatterning of Optically Transparent, Mechanically Robust, Biocompatible Silk Fibroin Films,” Adv. Mater. 20(16), 3070–3072 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomacromolecules (4)

B. D. Lawrence, M. Cronin-Golomb, I. Georgakoudi, D. L. Kaplan, and F. G. Omenetto, “Bioactive silk protein biomaterial systems for optical devices,” Biomacromolecules 9(4), 1214–1220 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. J. Kim, J. Park, C. Li, H. J. Jin, R. Valluzzi, and D. L. Kaplan, “Structure and properties of silk hydrogels,” Biomacromolecules 5(3), 786–792 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Jin, S. V. Fridrikh, G. C. Rutledge, and D. L. Kaplan, “Electrospinning Bombyx mori silk with poly(ethylene oxide),” Biomacromolecules 3(6), 1233–1239 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lu, X. Wang, Q. Lu, X. Hu, N. Uppal, F. G. Omenetto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Stabilization of enzymes in silk films,” Biomacromolecules 10(5), 1032–1042 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

G. H. Altman, F. Diaz, C. Jakuba, T. Calabro, R. L. Horan, J. Chen, H. Lu, J. Richmond, and D. L. Kaplan, “Silk-based biomaterials,” Biomaterials 24(3), 401–416 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain Length Dependence and Sensing Capabilities of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance of Silver Nanoparticles Chemically Modified with Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Q. Lv, C. Cao, Y. Zhang, X. Ma, and H. Zhu, “Preparation of insoluble fibroin films without methanol treatment,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 96(6), 2168–2173 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1)

S. Sofia, M. B. McCarthy, G. Gronowicz, and D. L. Kaplan, “Functionalized silk-based biomaterials for bone formation,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 54(1), 139–148 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Langmuir (2)

M. K. Gupta, S. K. Khokhar, D. M. Phillips, L. A. Sowards, L. F. Drummy, M. P. Kadakia, and R. R. Naik, “Patterned silk films cast from ionic liquid solubilized fibroin as scaffolds for cell growth,” Langmuir 23(3), 1315–1319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. J. Kim, P. Xu, A. Matsumoto, and D. L. Kaplan, “Biomaterial coatings by stepwise deposition of silk fibroin,” Langmuir 21(24), 11335–11341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

T. Xu, N. Zhang, H. L. Nichols, D. Shi, and X. Wen, “Modification of nanostructured materials for biomedical applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27(3), 579–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

J. A. Hagen, W. X. Li, H. Spaeth, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Molecular beam deposition of DNA nanometer films,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 133–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Gopinath, S. V. Boriskina, N.-N. Feng, B. M. Reinhard, and L. Dal Negro, “Photonic-plasmonic scattering resonances in deterministic aperiodic structures,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2423–2431 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. G. Omenetto and D. L. Kaplan, “A new route for silk,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 641–643 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Steckl, “DNA - a new material for photonics?” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 3–5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

B. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, “Enhancing the surface sensitivity of colorimetric resonant optical biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 87(2), 365–370 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Talanta (1)

C.-S. Cheng, Y.-Q. Chen, and C.-J. Lu, “Organic vapour sensing using localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum of metallic nanoparticles self assemble monolayer,” Talanta 73(2), 358–365 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. A. Browne, A Handbook of Sugar Analysis (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1912).

E. G. Loewen, and E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (M. Dekker, New York, 1997).

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