Abstract

Numerical investigations based on the boundary element method (BEM) have been carried out to two-dimensional (2-D) silver dimer nano-antennas of various geometries. The near-field and far-field properties are mainly determined by the local geometry at the gap and the global shape of the antenna shafts respectively. A hybrid dimer antenna, which mixes the geometry ingredients of the rod dimer and the bowtie, benefits in both near and far field. Using a microcavity representation, the resonance in dimer nano-antennas is explained in a common and semi-analytical manner. The plasmonic enhancement and the wavelength mismatching in the optical dimer antenna are naturally embodied in this model. The quality factor of the resonance, which can be influenced by the wavelength and the geometry, is discussed intuitively. The understanding presented in this work could guide the future engineering of the optical dimer antenna.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (1)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

F. J. G. de Abajo, “Nonlocal effects in the plasmons of strongly interacting nanoparticles, dimmers, and waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(46), 17983–17987 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1–4 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 ( 2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9144 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (7)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, Nanocapacitors, and Nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Valencia, E. R. Mendez, and B. S. Mendoza, “Second-harmonic generation in the scattering of light by two-dimensional particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(10), 2150–2161 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

F. J. García de Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5180–5183 ( 1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of a surface polariton in a wedge-like structure,” Phys. Lett. A 237(1-2), 103–105 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 ( 1972).
[Crossref]

Adam, P. M.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 ( 2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-21-9988 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1–4 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, Nanocapacitors, and Nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andrews, S. R.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Apell, P.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Bryant, G. W.

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 ( 2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-21-9988 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Charra, F.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 ( 1972).
[Crossref]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

de Abajo, F. J. G.

F. J. G. de Abajo, “Nonlocal effects in the plasmons of strongly interacting nanoparticles, dimmers, and waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(46), 17983–17987 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Douillard, L.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1–4 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, Nanocapacitors, and Nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, H.

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

García De Abajo, F. J.

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 ( 2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-21-9988 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

F. J. García de Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5180–5183 ( 1998).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Grober, R. D.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

Håkanson, U.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 ( 2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

Howie, A.

F. J. García de Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5180–5183 ( 1998).
[Crossref]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 ( 1972).
[Crossref]

Käll, M.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korczak, Z.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostcheev, S.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kottmann, J. P.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 ( 2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Lerondel, G.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liaw, J. W.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Maier, S. A.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Martin, O. J. F.

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 ( 2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9144 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Mendez, E. R.

Mendoza, B. S.

Moerland, R. J.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nerkararyan, Kh. V.

Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of a surface polariton in a wedge-like structure,” Phys. Lett. A 237(1-2), 103–105 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

Nordlander, P.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prober, D. E.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

Prodan, E.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 ( 2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romero, I.

Royer, P.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, Nanocapacitors, and Nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 ( 2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

Schoelkopf, R. J.

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Schultz, S.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valencia, C. I.

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. D. Grober, R. J. Schoelkopf, and D. E. Prober, “Optical antenna: Towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1354–1356 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc. (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 ( 1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 ( 2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

F. J. G. de Abajo, “Nonlocal effects in the plasmons of strongly interacting nanoparticles, dimmers, and waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(46), 17983–17987 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range Plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, R. J. Moerland, F. B. Segerink, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “λ/4 resonance of an optical monopole antenna probed by single molecule fluorescence,” Nano Lett. 7(1), 28–33 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 287–291 ( 2009).
[Crossref]

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics 2, 1–4 ( 2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Kh. V. Nerkararyan, “Superfocusing of a surface polariton in a wedge-like structure,” Phys. Lett. A 237(1-2), 103–105 ( 1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 ( 2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 ( 1972).
[Crossref]

J. P. Kottmann, O. J. F. Martin, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Plasmon resonances of silver nanowires with a nonregular cross section,” Phys. Rev. B 64(23), 235402 ( 2001).
[Crossref]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235420 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 ( 2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Käll, and P. Apell, “Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 62(33 Pt B), 4318–4324 ( 2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 ( 2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 ( 2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 ( 2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, A. Salandrino, and A. Alù, “Circuit elements at optical frequencies: Nanoinductors, Nanocapacitors, and Nanoresistors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(9), 095504 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. García de Abajo and A. Howie, “Relativistic electron energy loss and electron induced photon emission in inhomogeneous dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5180–5183 ( 1998).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, “Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons,” Science 308(5722), 670–672 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 ( 2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science 302(5644), 419–422 ( 2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

A. W. Snyder, and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory, Chapman and Hall Publisher (1983).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer: New York (2007).

L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, Cambridge University Press (2006).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Second Edition), Artech House: Boston (1997). Optiwave OptiFDTD 6.0

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) the 2-D dimer antennas (from left to right: the rod dimer, the bowtie, and the hybrid dimer) and (b) the dipolar (top row) and the octupolar (bottom row) resonances in a rod antenna having (right column) or not having (left column) a gap in the middle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Intensity near-field enhancement, (b) normalized SCS, and (c) normalized ACS of a 2-D rod dimer antenna as a function of the wavelength and the antenna length. The width of the rod is 40nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Resonant wavelengths of a rod dimer antenna vs. the antenna length. The rod width is 30nm. The definitions of λEnh , λSCS , λCharge , and λCurrent can be found in the text. (b) Schematic of the extensions of the propagating SPP and the evanescent waves in a rod dimer antenna. (c) Fitted (squares) and calculated (solid curve) phase variations and fitted normalization factor (triangles) along a rod dimer antenna at its SCS-associated resonant wavelength (λ0 = 512nm). L = 260nm and t = 30nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated |(E)| field distributions around a rod and a hybrid dimer antenna. L = 260nm, λ0 = 700nm, and t = 40nm. The adopted linear color scales for the rod dimer, the Bowtie (the inset in Fig. 4(a)), and the hybrid dimer are same. (b) Normalized SCS of the three types of dimer antennas vs. their resonant wavelength. The widths of the rod and the hybrid dimers are 20nm. The shade area is the interband transition region of the silver. (c) Normalized radiation patterns of the three types of dimer antennas. L = 300nm, λ0 = 580nm, and t = 20nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the propagation and the superfocusing of the local SPP in a bowtie antenna. The gray part stands for the silver. Inset: simulated |(E)| distribution around a bowtie antenna. L = 260nm and λ0 = 700nm. The color scale is such that blue is zero and red is high. (b) Intensity near-field enhancement of the three types of dimer antennas vs. their resonant wavelength. The widths of the rod and the hybrid dimers are 40nm. The shade area stands for the interband transition region of the silver. (c) Fitted and calculated phase variations and fitted normalization factor of a bowtie antenna as a function of the x-coordinate. L = 250nm and λ0 = 493nm (the SCS-associated resonant wavelength).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Q factors of the 2-D dimer antennas (logarithmic scale) vs. the resonant wavelength. The shade area stands for the material dissipation region. L = 100, 150, 200, 250, 300nm. The Q factors are extracted from the SCS spectra. (b) and (c) Q factors of the 3-D dimer antennas (linear scale) vs. the resonant wavelength. The cross section of the 3-D rod shaft is 40×40nm2, the cross section of the gap apex is 20×40nm2, L = 150, 200, 250, 300, 350nm. The Q factors in (b) and (c) are obtained from the far-field and the near-field spectra respectively. The star symbols represent a hybrid dimer with the smaller gap separation of g = 12nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The schematic of the charge/current distribution in a rod and a hybrid dimer antenna, and the schematic of the propagation of the SPP within the microcavity.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε Ag tan ( n 1 k 0 t / 2 ) n 1 = ε a i r n 2
E z ( z ) = A β x k 0 { sin ( n 1 k 0 t / 2 ) ε a i r exp [ n 2 k 0 ( z t 2 ) ] , z > t 2 sin ( n 1 k 0 z ) ε A g , - t 2 < z < t 2 sin ( n 1 k 0 t / 2 ) ε a i r exp [ n 2 k 0 ( z + t 2 ) ] , z < t 2
E x ( z ) = i A { n 2 sin ( n 1 k 0 t / 2 ) ε a i r exp [ n 2 k 0 ( z t 2 ) ] , z > t 2 n 1 cos ( n 1 k 0 z ) ε A g , - t 2 < z < t 2 n 2 sin ( n 1 k 0 t / 2 ) ε a i r exp [ n 2 k 0 ( z + t 2 ) ] , z < t 2
{ q ( x ) = q 0 sin [ φ ( x ) ] , B < | x | < L / 2 Δ I ( x ) = I 0 cos [ φ ( x ) ] , B < | x | < L / 2 Δ
φ ( x ) = { φ B Re [ β x ( λ 0 ) ] x , B < x < L / 2 Δ φ B Re [ β x ( λ 0 ) ] x , L / 2 + Δ < x < B
{ q ( x ) = q 0 | E z ( 0 ) [ x , z = ± t ( x ) / 2 ] | sin [ φ ( x ) ] , B < | x | < L / 2 Δ I ( x ) = I 0 | E x ( 0 ) [ x , z = ± t ( x ) / 2 ] | cos [ φ ( x ) ] , B < | x | < L / 2 Δ
φ ( x ) = { φ B 0 x Re [ β x ( x ' , λ 0 ) ] d x ' , B < x < L / 2 Δ φ B 0 x Re [ β x ( x ' , λ 0 ) ] d x ' , L / 2 + Δ < x < B

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