Abstract

Previously demonstrated slow light is still far from applications, particularly due to the limited bandwidth and control speed. Although semiconductor-based slow light has the high bandwidth and sub-nanosecond control speed, slow light was observed only in the absorption regime with attenuation, while fast light observed in the gain regime with amplification. The large power difference in two regimes makes the use of the optical delay impractical. We report novel slow light in the gain regime, with a high power comparable to that of fast light, utilizing the anomalous gain characteristic in a gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier. The slow light is tunable to fast light with the current as the only variable. Additional high speed operation, fast delay control, and wide range of operation wavelength make the present approach practical.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Thévenaz, “Slow and fast light in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. Su, P. Kondratko, and S. L. Chuang, “Variable optical delay using population oscillation and four-wave-mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4800–4807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Su and S. L. Chuang, “Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, and L. Thévenaz, “Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Opt. Express 13(1), 82–88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

1999

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. J.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. W.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Choi, H. B.

Chuang, S. L.

Deveaud, B.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dupertuis, M. A.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haacke, S.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herráez, M. G.

Hessler, T.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. W.

Jeong, W. G.

Kim, N. J.

Kondratko, P.

Ku, P. C.

Lee, D.

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

Matsudaira, A.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, D.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, J. M.

Palinginis, P.

Pleumeekers, L.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pyun, S. H.

Sedgwick, F.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selbmann, P. E.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, K. Y.

Su, H.

H. Su and S. L. Chuang, “Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Su, P. Kondratko, and S. L. Chuang, “Variable optical delay using population oscillation and four-wave-mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4800–4807 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thévenaz, L.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Su and S. L. Chuang, “Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. Pleumeekers, M. A. Dupertuis, T. Hessler, P. E. Selbmann, S. Haacke, and B. Deveaud, “Longitudinal spatial hole burning and associated nonlinear gain in gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 879–886 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Thévenaz, “Slow and fast light in optical fibers,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 474–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 meters per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, “Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gain vs. input signal power at various currents from a GCSOA. The anomalous gain characteristic, gain increase with the increase of input power, appears near the cessation of gain clamping. Gain curves from a conventional (without gain clamping) SOA are shown in the inset. The input optical signal at 1550 nm was modulated at 5 GHz to be at the same situation with slow light measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain change of the GCSOA measured by a weak tunable probe signal with the pump of different power at 1550 nm at a fixed current of 250 mA. The legends are for pump powers. The probe power is weaker than that of the pump by a factor of 100. Each curve is displaced by 20 dB. The increase of transmission is observed in the gain regime, even with the pump light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Phase changes as a function of the modulation frequency at various operation currents. The positive change corresponds to delay of optical signal. (b) Changes in optical gain with respect to that at the transparency current, as a function of the modulation frequency, at various operation currents of the GCSOA. Both data were taken simultaneously.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The difference in phase between 220 and 285 mA as a function of the modulation frequency, reconstructed from Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical delay and advance on an oscilloscope: Real time delays at various currents at 5 GHz (a) and 10 GHz (b). The total delay is 44 degrees at 5 GHz and 34 degrees at 10 GHz.

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