Abstract

We have realized efficient transverse cooling of an Indium atomic beam by combining optical pumping with a closed cycle UV laser cooling transition at 325.6 nm. The transverse velocity of the atomic beam is reduced to 13.5±3.8 cm/s, well below the Doppler cooling limit. The fraction of laser-cooled In atoms is enhanced to 12±3 % by optical pumping in the present experiment. It can be scaled up to approach 100% efficiency in cooling, providing high brightness atomic beams for further applications. Our results establish In on the map of elements suitable for applications involving laser cooling.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Meschede and H. Metcalf, "Atomic nanofabrication: atomic deposition and lithography by laser and magnetic forces," J. Phys. D 36,R17-38 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. B. Hill and J. J. McClelland, "Atoms on demand: Fast, deterministic production of single Cr atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3128-3130 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Watanabe, R. Ohmukai, U. Tanaka, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, "Velocity control of an Yb beam by a frequency-doubled mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2377-2381 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. McClelland, and J. L. Hanssen, "Laser cooling without repumping: a magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143005 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. W. McGowan, D. M. Giltner, and S. A. Lee, "Light force cooling, focusing, and nanometer-scale deposition of aluminum atoms," Opt. Lett. 20, 2535-2537 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J. Rehse, K. M. Bockel, and S. A. Lee, "Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Zimmermann, "Level-Crossing-Experimente zur Untersuchung der Hyperfeinstruktur des 5d2D5/2-Terms im Indium I-Spektrum," Z. Physik A,  233, 21-26 (1970).
  15. U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. I. Kim and D. Meschede, "Continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling of fiber amplifiers," Opt. Express 16, 10803-10808 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Laser cooling below the Doppler limit by polarization gradients: simple theoretical models," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2023-2045 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Röser, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, "94W980 nm high brightness Yb-doped fiber laser," Opt. Express 16, 17310-17318 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

J. J. McClelland, and J. L. Hanssen, "Laser cooling without repumping: a magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143005 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. J. Rehse, K. M. Bockel, and S. A. Lee, "Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. Meschede and H. Metcalf, "Atomic nanofabrication: atomic deposition and lithography by laser and magnetic forces," J. Phys. D 36,R17-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hill and J. J. McClelland, "Atoms on demand: Fast, deterministic production of single Cr atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3128-3130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1970 (1)

P. Zimmermann, "Level-Crossing-Experimente zur Untersuchung der Hyperfeinstruktur des 5d2D5/2-Terms im Indium I-Spektrum," Z. Physik A,  233, 21-26 (1970).

Alt, W.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijerinck, H. C. W.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Bockel, K. M.

S. J. Rehse, K. M. Bockel, and S. A. Lee, "Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brezger, B.

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Celotta, R.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

Dalibard, J.

dela Torre, R.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dirscherl, J.

G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Giltner, D. M.

Gomer, V.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, R.

R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Hanssen, J. L.

J. J. McClelland, and J. L. Hanssen, "Laser cooling without repumping: a magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143005 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haubrich, D.

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

Herfst, R. W.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. B.

S. B. Hill and J. J. McClelland, "Atoms on demand: Fast, deterministic production of single Cr atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3128-3130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imajo, H.

Jauregui, C.

Jürgens, D.

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. I.

Klöter, B.

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhr, S.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. A.

Leung, V.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

Maguire, L. P.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, and J. L. Hanssen, "Laser cooling without repumping: a magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143005 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Hill and J. J. McClelland, "Atoms on demand: Fast, deterministic production of single Cr atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3128-3130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGowan, R. W.

Meschede, D.

J. I. Kim and D. Meschede, "Continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling of fiber amplifiers," Opt. Express 16, 10803-10808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Meschede and H. Metcalf, "Atomic nanofabrication: atomic deposition and lithography by laser and magnetic forces," J. Phys. D 36,R17-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metcalf, H.

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Meschede and H. Metcalf, "Atomic nanofabrication: atomic deposition and lithography by laser and magnetic forces," J. Phys. D 36,R17-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müther, T.

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohmukai, R.

Palm, E. C.

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasbach, U.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rehse, S. J.

S. J. Rehse, K. M. Bockel, and S. A. Lee, "Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Röser, F.

Sarkisyan, D.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
[CrossRef]

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrader, D.

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, Th.

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smeets, B.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

te Sligte, E.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Uhlenberg, G.

G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

van der Straten, P.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

van Leeuwen, K. A. H.

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Varzhapertyan, T.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Weber, C.

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, P.

P. Zimmermann, "Level-Crossing-Experimente zur Untersuchung der Hyperfeinstruktur des 5d2D5/2-Terms im Indium I-Spektrum," Z. Physik A,  233, 21-26 (1970).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Smeets, R. W. Herfst, L. P. Maguire, E. te Sligte, P. van der Straten, H. C. W. Beijerinck and K. A. H. van Leeuwen, "Laser collimation of an Fe atomic beam on a leaky transition," Appl. Phys. B 80, (2005) 833
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Th. Schulze, T. Müther, D. Jürgens, B. Brezger. M. K. Oberthaler, T. Pfau, and J. Mlynek, "Structured doping with light forces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1781-1783 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hill and J. J. McClelland, "Atoms on demand: Fast, deterministic production of single Cr atoms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3128-3130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

D. Meschede and H. Metcalf, "Atomic nanofabrication: atomic deposition and lithography by laser and magnetic forces," J. Phys. D 36,R17-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

R. E. Scholten, R. Gupta, J. J. McClelland, R. J. Celotta M. S. Levenson and M. G. Vangel, "Laser collimation of a chromium beam," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1331-1338 (1997)
[CrossRef]

G. Uhlenberg, J. Dirscherl and H. Walther, "Magneto-optical trapping of silver atoms," Phys. Rev. A 62, 063404 (2000)
[CrossRef]

U. Rasbach, J. Wang, R. dela Torre, V. Leung, B. Klöter, D. Meschede, T. Varzhapertyan and D. Sarkisyan, "Oneand two-color laser spectroscopy of indium vapor in an all-sapphire cell," Phys. Rev. A 70, 033810, (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Klöter, C. Weber, D. Haubrich, D. Meschede, and H. Metcalf, "Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Rehse, K. M. Bockel, and S. A. Lee, "Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. J. McClelland, and J. L. Hanssen, "Laser cooling without repumping: a magneto-optical trap for erbium atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143005 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. J. McClelland, R. E. Scholten, E. C. Palm, and R. Celotta, "Laser-focused atomic deposition," Science 262, 877-880 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, M. Müller, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, "Deterministic delivery of a single atom," Science 293, 278-280 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Physik A (1)

P. Zimmermann, "Level-Crossing-Experimente zur Untersuchung der Hyperfeinstruktur des 5d2D5/2-Terms im Indium I-Spektrum," Z. Physik A,  233, 21-26 (1970).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy level scheme of 115In including hyperfine structures [14]. The cycling transition for laser cooling, 2 P 3/2,F″=6→2 D 5/2,]‴=7, is driven by UV light at λ cool= 325.6 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup. The atoms are optically pumped to the 2 P 3/2 levels by two violet lasers at λ pump in the pumping region. In the cooling region, UV light at λ cool is applied with a polarization gradient configuration (lin⊥lin) for laser cooling. The spatial distribution of the atomic flux density is measured by exciting the atoms at λ probe and imaging the fluorescence distribution at λ pump in the probe region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Solid line: Fluorescence spectrum of the In 2 P 3/22 D 5/2 transitions induced by the UV laser at λ cool. Dotted line: Doppler limited absorption spectrum of a hollow cathode lamp. The frequency of the laser is calibrated by the separation between 6→5 and 6→7 transitions (1948 MHz). The FWHM of the peak of the 6→7 transition is 44 MHz. (b) Theoretical spectrum indicating position and oscillator strengths of hyperfine transitions. In the observed spectrum, optical cycling leads to strong enhancement on the closed 6→7 transition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Integrated transverse profiles of the atomic beam from (a) the partially clogged aperture and (b) the cleaned aperture in the probe region: (solid line) cooling with the lin ⊥ lin polarization gradient (Δ~ - Γ), (dotted line) no laser cooling, (dashed line) heating with lin ⊥ lin polarization gradient (Δ~ + Γ). Insets: Images of a cooled (left) and a heated (right) In atomic beam. In the measurement for Fig. 4(b), the cooling laser power is reduced to about 2/3 of the initial power due to a technical problem.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Atomic parameters of the cooling transition 2 P 3/2, F″=6→2 D 5/2, F‴=7.

Metrics