Abstract

We describe the use of wavefront coding for the mitigation of optical aberrations in a thermal imaging system. Diffraction-limited imaging is demonstrated with a simple singlet which enables an approximate halving in length and mass of the optical system compared to an equivalent two-element lens.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  4. G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE Vol. 5612, 227-235 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Demenikov, E. Findlay, and A. R. Harvey, "Miniaturization of zoom lenses with a single moving element," Opt. Express 17, 6118-6127 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "The effect of detector sampling in wavefront-coded imaging systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 054002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 2715-2717 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. S. Sherif, W. T. Cathey, and E. R. Dowski, "Phase Plate to Extend the Depth of Field of Incoherent Hybrid Imaging Systems," Appl. Opt. 43, 2709-2721 (2004).
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  15. G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).
  16. G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Demenikov, E. Findlay, and A. R. Harvey, "Miniaturization of zoom lenses with a single moving element," Opt. Express 17, 6118-6127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "The effect of detector sampling in wavefront-coded imaging systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 054002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Mezouari, G. Muyo, and A. R. Harvey, "Circularly symmetric phase filters for control of primary third-order aberrations: coma and astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1058-1062 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

2005

G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 2715-2717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2001

1998

1997

1995

Andersson, M.

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

Andrews, M.

Athale, R.

Biggs, D. S. C.

Bustin, N.

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

Cathey, T. W.

Cathey, W. T.

Chi, W.

Demenikov, M.

Dowski, E.

Dowski, E. R.

Findlay, E.

George, N.

Harvey, A.

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

Harvey, A. R.

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "The effect of detector sampling in wavefront-coded imaging systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 054002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Demenikov, E. Findlay, and A. R. Harvey, "Miniaturization of zoom lenses with a single moving element," Opt. Express 17, 6118-6127 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mezouari, G. Muyo, and A. R. Harvey, "Circularly symmetric phase filters for control of primary third-order aberrations: coma and astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1058-1062 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 2715-2717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).

S. Mezouari and A. R. Harvey, "Phase pupil functions for reduction of defocus and spherical aberrations," Opt. Lett. 28, 771-773 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huckridge, D.

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

Kubala, K.

Mait, J.

Mezouari, S.

Muyo, G.

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "The effect of detector sampling in wavefront-coded imaging systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 054002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

S. Mezouari, G. Muyo, and A. R. Harvey, "Circularly symmetric phase filters for control of primary third-order aberrations: coma and astigmatism," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1058-1062 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 2715-2717 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).

Ojeda-Castañeda, J.

Pauca, V. P.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plemmons, R. J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, S.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauceda, A.

Sherif, S. S.

Sicre, E. E.

Singh, A.

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).

Torgersen, T. C.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Gracht, J.

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mait, R. Athale, and J. van der Gracht, "Evolutionary paths in imaging and recent trends," Opt. Express 11, 2093-2101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vettenburg, T.

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

Wood, A.

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

Zalvidea, D.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "The effect of detector sampling in wavefront-coded imaging systems," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 054002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc SPIE

T. Vettenburg, A. Wood, N. Bustin, and A. R. Harvey, "Optimality of pupil-phase profiles for increasing the defocus tolerance of hybrid digital-optical imaging systems," Proc SPIE 7429, 742903 (2009). doi: 10.1117/12.825119.
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Prasad, T. C. Torgersen, V. P. Pauca, R. J. Plemmons, and J. van der Gracht, "Engineering the pupil phase to improve image quality," Proc. SPIE 5108, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Muyo, A. R. Harvey, and A. Singh, "High-performance thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding," Proc. SPIE 5987, 162-169 (2005).

G. Muyo; A. Singh, M. Andersson, D. Huckridge, and A. Harvey, "Optimized thermal imaging with a singlet and pupil plane encoding: experimental realization," Proc. SPIE 6395, U211-U219 (2006).

Other

G. D.B oreman, Modulation transfer function in optical and electro-optical systems (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2001).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Karl, "Regularization in image restoration and reconstruction," in Handbook of Image and Video Processing, A. Bovik, ed., (Academic Press 2000).

G. Muyo and A. R. Harvey, "Wavefront coding for athermalization of infrared imaging systems," Proc. SPIE Vol. 5612, 227-235 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Original germanium IR lens and (b). re-optimised aspheric singlet

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Singlet polychromatic tangential and sagittal MTFs for various field angles up to the Nyquist frequency and (b) corresponding pixelated PSFs at field angles of 0, 2.5 and 3.5° degrees in horizontal and vertical directions. MTF plots incorporate the pixel MTF [17].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Image from the singlet only of the World Trade Centre area in Stockholm. (b) image recorded with singlet and phase mask prior to digital decoding.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated MTF and PSF for the singlet with (a) a pure cubic function and (b) the manufactured generalised cubic mask for horizontal and vertical field angles of 0°, 2.5° and 3.5°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wavefront interferograms (a) calculated for the designed phase mask and (b) measured for the manufactured mask.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Restored image using (a) the spatially-invariant Lucy-Richardson algorithm and (b) the spatially variant Van-Cittert algorithm.

Equations (1)

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θ ( x , y ) = α ( x 3 + y 3 ) + β ( x 2 y + x y 2 ) ,

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