Abstract

Effect of angled sidewalls on the filling and properties of silicon slot waveguides is discussed. We demonstrate complete filling of slot waveguide structures with oxide material systems using the atomic layer deposition technique and discuss use of various slot filling materials. Properties of the optical modes in angled-sidewall slot waveguides are studied. Enhanced vertical confinement is obtained with certain waveguide parameters. The reduced effective mode area enhances e.g. nonlinear effects in the waveguide. We discuss the use of atomic layer deposition in realization of filled slot waveguides optimized for all-optical functionalities.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

P. Müllner, R. Hainberger, "Optical characteristics of V-groove waveguide structures," Proc. SPIE 7220, 722004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, "Nanosilicon photonics," Laser Photon. Rev., 1-27 (2009).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Afshar V. and T. M. Monro, "A full vectorial model for pulse propagation in emerging waveguides with subwavelength structures part I: Kerr nonlinearity," Opt. Express 17, 2298-2318 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Spano, N. Daldosso, M. Cazzanelli, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, "Bound electronic and free carrier nonlinearities in Silicon nanocrystals at 1550nm," Opt. Express 17, 3941-3950 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Jacob T. Robinson, Kyle Preston, Oskar Painter, and Michal Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16659-16669 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.L. Puurunen, "Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon - challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2000

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Tiitta and L. Niinistö, "Volatile Metal beta-Diketonates: ALE and CVD precursors for electroluminescent device thin films," Chem. Vap. Deposition 3, 167-182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. E. Lines, "Influence of d orbitals on the nonlinear optical response of transparent transition-metal oxides," Phys. Rev. B. 43, 11978-11990 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Adair, L.L. Chase, and S.A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 -3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L.L. Chase, and S.A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 -3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V., S.

Alasaarela, T.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.R.

Ay, F.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

Blauwendraat, T. P.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cazzanelli, M.

Chase, L.L.

R. Adair, L.L. Chase, and S.A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 -3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ching-yin, Feng

Daldosso, N.

Degiorgio, V.

Dell’Olio, F.

Diederich, F.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Po

Dumon, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Feng, N.-N.

Ferraioli, L.

Freude, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geskus, D.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

P. Müllner, R. Hainberger, "Optical characteristics of V-groove waveguide structures," Proc. SPIE 7220, 722004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hakkarainen, T.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harjuoja, J.

M. Putkonen, J. Harjuoja, T. Sajavaara and L. Niinistö, "Atomic layer deposition of polyimide thin films," J. Mater. Chem. 17, 664 - 669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horie, K.

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacome, L.

Jordana, E.

Karvonen, L.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, A.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kimerling, Lionel

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreissig, U.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, "Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing," Opt. Express 15, 5976-5990 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, "Influence of d orbitals on the nonlinear optical response of transparent transition-metal oxides," Phys. Rev. B. 43, 11978-11990 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, H.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lipson, Michal

Major, A.

Marti, J.

Martinez, A.

Michel, J.

Michel, Jurgen

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Morino, S.

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müllner, P.

P. Müllner, R. Hainberger, "Optical characteristics of V-groove waveguide structures," Proc. SPIE 7220, 722004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niinistö, L.

M. Putkonen, J. Harjuoja, T. Sajavaara and L. Niinistö, "Atomic layer deposition of polyimide thin films," J. Mater. Chem. 17, 664 - 669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tiitta and L. Niinistö, "Volatile Metal beta-Diketonates: ALE and CVD precursors for electroluminescent device thin films," Chem. Vap. Deposition 3, 167-182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikolakakos, I.

Ning-ning, Po

Painter, Oskar

Panepucci, R.R.

Passaro, V. M.

Pavesi, L.

Payne, S.A.

R. Adair, L.L. Chase, and S.A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 -3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Preble, S.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, Kyle

Putkonen, M.

M. Putkonen, J. Harjuoja, T. Sajavaara and L. Niinistö, "Atomic layer deposition of polyimide thin films," J. Mater. Chem. 17, 664 - 669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puukilainen, E.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puurunen, R.L.

R.L. Puurunen, "Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, Jacob T.

Sajavaara, T.

M. Putkonen, J. Harjuoja, T. Sajavaara and L. Niinistö, "Atomic layer deposition of polyimide thin films," J. Mater. Chem. 17, 664 - 669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Sasabe, H.

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Säynätjoki, A.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scimeca, M. L.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

Spano, R.

Stewart Aitchison, J.

Sun, R.

Sun, Rong

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tartara, L.

Tervonen, A.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiitta, M.

M. Tiitta and L. Niinistö, "Volatile Metal beta-Diketonates: ALE and CVD precursors for electroluminescent device thin films," Chem. Vap. Deposition 3, 167-182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Worhoff, K.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Yu, J.

Adv. Mater.

B. Esembeson, M. L. Scimeca, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, and I. Biaggio, "A high-optical quality supramolecular assembly for third-order integrated nonlinear optics," Adv. Mater. 20, 4584-4587 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, "Design and fabrication of segmented, slotted waveguides for electro-optic modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulatorbased slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

T. Pilvi, E. Puukilainen, U. Kreissig, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, "Atomic Layer Deposition of MgF2 Thin Films Using TaF5 as a Novel Fluorine Source," Chem. Mater. 20, 5023-5028 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vap. Deposition

M. Tiitta and L. Niinistö, "Volatile Metal beta-Diketonates: ALE and CVD precursors for electroluminescent device thin films," Chem. Vap. Deposition 3, 167-182 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. Worhoff, J. D. B. Bradley, F. Ay, D. Geskus, T. P. Blauwendraat, and M. Pollnau, "Reliable Low-Cost Fabrication of Low-Loss Al2O3:Er3+ Waveguides With 5.4-dB Optical Gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 454-461 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R.L. Puurunen, "Surface chemistry of atomic layer deposition: A case study for the trimethylaluminum/water process," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Chem.

M. Putkonen, J. Harjuoja, T. Sajavaara and L. Niinistö, "Atomic layer deposition of polyimide thin films," J. Mater. Chem. 17, 664 - 669 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

N. Daldosso and L. Pavesi, "Nanosilicon photonics," Laser Photon. Rev., 1-27 (2009).

Nat. Photonics

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude and J. Leuthold, "All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides," Nat. Photonics 3, 216-219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

T. Alasaarela, A. Säynätjoki, T. Hakkarainen, and S. Honkanen, "Feature size reduction of silicon slot waveguides by partial filling using atomic layer deposition," Opt. Eng. 48, 080502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

R. Adair, L.L. Chase, and S.A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337 -3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

M. E. Lines, "Influence of d orbitals on the nonlinear optical response of transparent transition-metal oxides," Phys. Rev. B. 43, 11978-11990 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Gondarenko, S. Preble, J. Robinson, L. Chen, H. Lipson, and M. Lipson, "Spontaneous Emergence of Periodic Patterns in a Biologically Inspired Simulation of Photonic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 143904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, A. Khanna, T. Alasaarela, A. Tervonen, and S. Honkanen, "Silicon slot waveguides for nonlinear optics," Proc. SPIE 7212, 72120T (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Müllner, R. Hainberger, "Optical characteristics of V-groove waveguide structures," Proc. SPIE 7220, 722004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reactive and Functional Polymers

S. Morino, T. Yamashita, K. Horie, T. Wada, and H. Sasabe, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of aromatic polyisoimides," Reactive and Functional Polymers 44, 183-188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Guo, K. S. Chiang, and H. Li, Nonlinear photonics, (Springer).

E. Jordana, J.M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J.P. Colonna, P.E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, T. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, "Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of SlotWaveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications," Group IV Photonics, 2007 4th IEEE International Conference on paper ThC3.

FimmWave 5.1, November 2008, PhotonDesign Ltd.; www.photond.com.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic comparison between an angled and a straight slot when filled with conformal growth.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron micrograph of a cross section of slot waveguide test structures filled with a) ALD grown titanium dioxide, b) laminate of alternating layers of aluminum oxide and titanium oxide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the thin-film-filled slot waveguide and introduction of its parameters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mode intensity distribution in a slot waveguide with n s=1.44, w s=80 nm, w r=160 nm and h=260 nm and a) n s=1.44 and w sb=80 nm, b) n s=1.44 and w sb=50 nm, c) n s=2.2 and w sb=80 nm, d) n s=2.2 and w sb=50 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effective mode area in a slot waveguide with w s=80 nm, w r=160 nm and h=260 nm, as a function of w sb, with cover materials of different refractive indices.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effective nonlinearity and n 2/α 2 figure of merit in TiO2 filled slot waveguides with w r=160 nm and h=260 nm, as a function of w sb at different w s from 40 nm to 120 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Effective nonlinearity, and n 2/α 2 figure of merit as a function of w sb in slot waveguides filled with DDMEBT polymer at different ws from 40 to 120 nm, having geometry parameters w r=160 nm and h=260 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Effective nonlinearity and FOM n 2/α 2 in silicon nanocrystal filled slot waveguides with w r=160 nm and h=260 nm, as a function of w sb at different w s from 40 nm to 120 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Confinement factor for gain in Al2O3 filled slot waveguides with w r=160 nm and h=260 nm, as a function of w sb at different w s from 40 nm to 100 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Material parameters used in the calculations, and the wavelengths for the given parameters. (*)Ref. [26] gives values for λ=1 µm and for λ→∞.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 n 2 ( Si O 2 )
A eff = Z 0 2 n 2 Re { E ( x , y ) × H * ( x , y ) } · u z d A 2 E ( x , y ) 4 d A
γ = n 2 Z 0 2 E ( x , y ) 4 · n 2 ( x , y ) d A Re { E ( x , y ) × H * ( x , y ) } · u z d A 2 ,
FOM n 2 α 2 = E ( x , y ) 4 · n 2 ( x , y ) d A E ( x , y ) 4 · α 2 ( x , y ) d A .
Γ = n A c ε 0 GM E ( x , y ) 2 d A Re { E ( x , y ) × H * ( x , y ) } · u z d A ,

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