Abstract

We demonstrate the enhancement of light extraction in 633 nm AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with antireflective subwavelength structures (SWS). From the contour plots by the rigorous coupled wave analysis method, it is found that the reduction of the internal reflection strongly depends on the period of SWS. The Ag nanoparticles formed by thermal dewetting were used as an etch mask for dry etch process to fabricate antireflective SWS on the LED surface. The tapered pillars on the GaP were fabricated, on average, with distances below 200 nm, satisfying the required antireflection condition at the emission wavelength. The improvement in light output power by ~26.4% was achieved for the fabricated AlGaInP LEDs with SWS compared to the conventional LEDs due to a strongly reduced Fresnel internal reflection at the GaP/air interface. The improved directionality in the far-field pattern was also obtained due to the directional light extraction enhancement.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, S. Y. Bae, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Closely packed and aspect-ratio-controlled antireflection subwavelength gratings on GaAs using a lenslike shape transfer,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1702–1704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

J.-M. Lee and B.-I. Kim, “Thermal dewetting of Pt thin film: Etch-masks for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 769–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Ishimori, and K. Hane, “High efficient light-emitting diodes with antireflection subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1064–1066 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

Bae, S. Y.

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brouwer, E. A. M.

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, R.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. T.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Ge, H.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Ishimori, and K. Hane, “High efficient light-emitting diodes with antireflection subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1064–1066 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, M.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimori, M.

Y. Kanamori, M. Ishimori, and K. Hane, “High efficient light-emitting diodes with antireflection subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1064–1066 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, M. Ishimori, and K. Hane, “High efficient light-emitting diodes with antireflection subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1064–1066 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuta, H.

Kim, B.-I.

J.-M. Lee and B.-I. Kim, “Thermal dewetting of Pt thin film: Etch-masks for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 769–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

Kojima, Y.

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kooij, E. S.

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-M.

J.-M. Lee and B.-I. Kim, “Thermal dewetting of Pt thin film: Etch-masks for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 769–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohmüller, T.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizutani, A.

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

Nishii, J.

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poelsema, B.

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Spatz, J. P.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundermann, M.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wormeester, H.

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-S.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, J.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. Z.

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolums,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Wang, X. Z. Yu, and H. T. Fan, “Simple lithographic approach for subwavelength structure antireflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Kanamori, M. Ishimori, and K. Hane, “High efficient light-emitting diodes with antireflection subwavelength gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(8), 1064–1066 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ishimori, Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Subwavelength antireflection gratings for light emitting diodes and photodiodes fabricated by fast atom beam etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 1, No. 6B), 4346–4349 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

E. S. Kooij, E. A. M. Brouwer, H. Wormeester, and B. Poelsema, “Ionic strength mediated self-organization of gold nanocrystals: An AFM study,” Langmuir 18(20), 7677–7682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

J.-M. Lee and B.-I. Kim, “Thermal dewetting of Pt thin film: Etch-masks for the fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 769–773 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

Y. Kojima and T. Kato, “Nanoparticle formation in Au thin films by electron-beam-induced dewetting,” Nanotechnology 19(25), 255605 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optic, 4th ed.(Addison Wesley, 2002), Chap. 10.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration for the fabrication procedure of the SWS integrated AlGaInP LEDs using thermally dewetted Ag nano masks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contour plot of the variation of reflectance caused by (a) the external reflection from the air to the GaP and (b) the internal reflection from the GaP to the air as a function of pillar period and wavelength for a pillar height of 400 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the Ag films on SiO2 (a) as-deposited with the thickness of 10 nm and annealed at 500 °C for 1 min under a nitrogen atmosphere with thicknesses of (b) 5 nm, (c) 10 nm, and (d) 20 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of the fabricated AlGaInP LED integrated with SWS, and (b) L-I-V curves of the conventional LED and the LED with SWS at room temperature. The inset of (b) shows the emission spectra of the conventional LED and the LED with SWS at an injection current of 100 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured far-field patterns of the conventional LED and the LED with SWS, and (b) Calculated internal reflectance of the GaP with and without SWS at a wavelength of 633 nm.

Equations (1)

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sin θ r , m = m λ Λ n + sin θ i

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