Abstract

We developed an optical frequency synthesizer (OFS) with the carrier-envelope-offset frequency locked to 0 Hz achieved using the “direct locking method.” This method differs from a conventional phase-lock method in that the interference signal from a self-referencing f-2f interferometer is directly fed back to the carrier-envelope-phase control of a femtosecond laser in the time domain. A comparison of the optical frequency of the new OFS to that of a conventional OFS stabilized by a phase-lock method showed that the frequency comb of the new OFS was not different to that of the conventional OFS within an uncertainty of 5.68×10-16. As a practical application of this OFS, we measured the absolute frequency of an acetylene-stabilized diode laser serving as an optical frequency standard in optical communications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury,"Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical clockwork with an offsetfree difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 310-312 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Kourogi, "Absolute optical measurement of the cesium D2 line," Phys. Rev. A 62, 031801 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. I. Lira, Evaluating the measurement uncertainty (Institute of physics, Bristol. Uk, 2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury,"Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, S. H. Lee, W. K. Lee, H. S. Moon, and H. S. Suh, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene stabilized laser using a selected single mode from a femtosecond fiber laser comb," Opt. Express 16, 2867-2873 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Park, T. J. Yu, and C. H. Nam, "Long-term carrier-envelope-phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser by the direct locking method," Opt. Express 16, 12624-12631 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (4)

T. Imran, Y. S. Lee, C. H. Nam, K.-H. Hong, T. J. Yu, and J. H. Sung, "Stabilization and control of the carrierenvelope phase of high-power femtosecond laser pulses using direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15, 104-112 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yu, K.-H. Hong, H.-G. Choi, J. H. Sung, I. W. Choi, D. K. Ko, J. Lee, J. Kim, D. E. Kim, and C. H. Nam, "Precise and long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of femtosecond laser pulses using an enhanced direct locking technique," Opt. Express 15, 8203-8211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

M. Zimmermann, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical clockwork with an offsetfree difference-frequency comb: accuracy of sum- and difference-frequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 310-312 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, "Self-stabilization of carrier-envelope offset phase by use of differencefrequency generation," Opt. Lett. 29, 632-634 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Kourogi, "Absolute optical measurement of the cesium D2 line," Phys. Rev. A 62, 031801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. T.W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute opitcla frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

Barber, Z. W.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bi, Z.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J.-P.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-G.

Choi, I. W.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury,"Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddems, S. A.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felder, R.

R. Felder, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003)," Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

Fortier, T. M.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

Gohle, C.

Grasbon, F.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gubin, M. A.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hänsch, T. W. T. W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute opitcla frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.W. T.W.

Heavner, T. P.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F.-L.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.-H.

Hosaka, K.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Imran, T.

Inaba, H.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itano, W. M.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefferts, S. R.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, D. E.

Kim, E. B.

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, K.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. K.

Kohno, T.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Kourogi, "Absolute optical measurement of the cesium D2 line," Phys. Rev. A 62, 031801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Kwon, T. Y.

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S. H.

Lee, S. K.

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

Lee, W.-K.

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

Lemke, N. D.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludlow, A. D.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marian, A.

Moon, H. S.

Mücke, O. D.

Nakajima, Y.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury,"Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C. Y.

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Park, S. E.

E. B. Kim, W.-K. Lee, C. Y. Park, D.-H. Yu, S. K. Lee, and S. E. Park, "Direct comparison of optical frequency combs using a comb-injection-lock technique," Opt. Express 16, 16721-16727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. T.

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. H.

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-H.

Parker, T. E.

N. D. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Z. W. Barber, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddems, Y. Jiang, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, and C. W. Oates,"Spin-1/2 optical lattice clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrukhin, E. A.

Poletto, L.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Kourogi, "Absolute optical measurement of the cesium D2 line," Phys. Rev. A 62, 031801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. T.W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute opitcla frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, H. S.

Sung, J. H.

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington,W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury,"Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, U.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

S. Bize, S. A. Diddams, U. Tanaka, C. E. Tanner, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. E. Parker, T. P. Heavner, S. R. Jefferts, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, "Testing the stability of fundamental constants with the 199Hg+ single-ion optical clock," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 150802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, T. W. Hänsch, and M. Kourogi, "Absolute optical measurement of the cesium D2 line," Phys. Rev. A 62, 031801 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T.W. T.W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute opitcla frequency measurement of the cesium D1 line with a mode-locked laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568-3571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walter, H.

F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walter, P. Villoresi, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, and S. De Silvestri, "Abovethreshod ionization at the few-cycle limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173003 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilpers, G.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yasuda, M.

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Yee, D. S.

Yee, D.-S.

E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, J. Y.

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T. H.

S. E. Park, E. B. Kim, Y.-H. Park, D. S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, C. Y. Park, H. S. Moon, and T. H. Yoon, "Sweep optical frequency synthesizer with a distributed-bragg-reflector laser injection locked by a single component of an optical frequency comb," Opt. Lett. 31, 3594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.-H.

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Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, J.-P. Caumes, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Single-atom effect in high-order harmonic generation : role of carrier-envelope phase in the few-optical-cycle regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 873-877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Kohno, M. Yasuda, K. Hosaka, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, and F.-L. Hong, "One-dimensional optical lattice clock with a fermionic 171Yb isotope," Appl. Phys. Express 2, 072501 (2009).
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H. S. Moon, E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, and C. Y. Park, "Selection and amplification of modes of an optical frequency comb using a femtosecond laser injection-locking technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181110 (2006).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, K. Kim, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Frequency uncertainty for optically referenced femtosecond laser frequency combs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 139-146 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. H. Yoon, S. T. Park, E. B. Kim, and J. Y. Yeom, "Orthogonal control of femtosecond mode-locked lasr having zero carrier-offset frequency with three-axis PZT," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1025-1029 (2003).
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E. B. Kim, S. E. Park, C. Y. Park, Y. H. Park, D.-S. Yee, T. Y. Kwon, H. S. Lee, and H. Cho, "Absolute frequency measurement of F=4 → F’=5 transition line of cesium using amplified optical frequency comb," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 448-452 (2007).
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Metrologia (1)

R. Felder, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003)," Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
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Opt. Express (6)

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Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
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International Telecommunication Union, Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU-T G.694.1 (2002).

I. Lira, Evaluating the measurement uncertainty (Institute of physics, Bristol. Uk, 2002).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental scheme for the realization of an optical frequency synthesizer (OFS1) with a zero carrier-envelope-offset frequency using the direct locking method (upper part) and the evaluation of its accuracy in a direct comparison (middle part) with an optical frequency synthesizer (OFS2) stabilized by a conventional PLL method (lower part). H.W., half-wave plate; IF, interference filter; OI, optical isolator; PO, polarizer; PD, high speed photodiode; BD, balanced detector; DBR, distributed-Bragg-reflector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Allan deviation derived from the beat frequency between one of the stabilized comb modes of OFS1 and an acetylene-stabilized laser. The decrease is inversely proportional to the square root of the counter gate time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measurement summary of the frequency difference between OFS1 and OFS2. The weighted mean of the difference frequencies (column 3) is calculated as (-0.05±0.20)Hz, which corresponds to a relative uncertainty of 5.68×10-16 at 352 THz.

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