Abstract

Polycrystalline silicon (polySi) wire waveguides with width ranging from 200 to 500 nm are fabricated by solid-phase crystallization (SPC) of deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si) on SiO2 at a maximum temperature of 1000°C. The propagation loss at 1550 nm decreases from 13.0 to 9.8 dB/cm with the waveguide width shrinking from 500 to 300 nm while the 200-nm-wide waveguides exhibit quite large loss (>70 dB/cm) mainly due to the relatively rough sidewall of waveguides induced by the polySi dry etch. By modifying the process sequence, i.e., first patterning the a-Si layer into waveguides by dry etch and then SPC, the sidewall roughness is significantly improved but the polySi crystallinity is degraded, leading to 13.9 dB/cm loss in the 200-nm-wide waveguides while larger losses in the wider waveguides. Phosphorus implantation causes an additional loss in the polySi waveguides. The doping-induced optical loss increases relatively slowly with the phosphorus concentration increasing up to 1 × 1018 cm−3, whereas the 5 × 1018 cm−3 doped waveguides exhibit large loss due to the dominant free carrier absorption. For all undoped polySi waveguides, further 1–2 dB/cm loss reduction is obtained by a standard forming gas (10%H2 + 90%N2) annealing owing to the hydrogen passivation of Si dangling bonds present in polySi waveguides, achieving the lowest loss of 7.9 dB/cm in the 300-nm-wide polySi waveguides. However, for the phosphorus doped polySi waveguides, the propagation loss is slightly increased by the forming gas annealing.

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2009

2008

2007

2005

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss single mode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32–37 (1986).

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahopelto, J.

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32–37 (1986).

Black, M. R.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Harke, A.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss single mode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss single mode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipsanen, H.

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

Manipatruni, S.

McNab, S. J.

Mueller, J.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss single mode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Preston, K.

Riikonen, J.

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Säynatjoki, A.

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Song, J. F.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32–37 (1986).

Tao, S. H.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Yu, M. B.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(15), 2052–2054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Mueller, “Low-loss single mode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides: effects of waveguide dimensions, thermal treatment, hydrogen passivation, and wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(12), 1380–1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.

A. Säynatjoki, J. Riikonen, H. Lipsanen, and J. Ahopelto, “Optical waveguides on polysilicon-on-insulator,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 14(5/7), 417–420 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of E-O switching in silicon,” SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32–37 (1986).

Other

A. Saynatjoki, S. Arpiainen, J. Ahopelto, and H. Lipsanen, “High-index-contrast optical waveguides on silicon”, AIP Conf. Proc. 772, 27th Intern. Conf. on the Physics of Semiconductors, 1537–1538 (2005).

T. Kamins, Polycrystalline Silicon for Integrated Circuits and Displays, 2nd ed., (Kluwer, 1998).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Insertion losses of polySi waveguides as a function of the waveguide length for three width sets. The linear fitting lines are also shown, from which the propagation losses and the coupling losses are extracted. The inset shows a SEM image of the waveguide near the tip area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The phosphorus-induced additional loss ( = loss of doped waveguide – loss of corresponding undoped waveguide) as a function of phosphorus concentration. The solid symbols represent those fabricated by the normal approach and the open symbols represent those fabricated by the modified approach.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The forming gas anneal-induced loss variation ( = loss of FG annealed waveguide – loss of corresponding waveguide without the FG anneal) for undoped and doped polySi waveguides. The solid symbols represent those fabricated by the normal approach and the open symbols represent those fabricated by the modified approach.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Propagation losses at 1550 nm in various undoped polySi wire waveguides, extracted from the cutback method. The error is estimated to be less than ± 1.0 dB/cm.

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