Abstract

A silicon electro-optic modulator based on coupled microring resonators is proposed. The dual-ring modulator has wide optical bandwidth, high extinction ratio and low insertion loss. A simple integrated circuit connecting the two rings allows for fast modulation speed of >40 Gbit/s. This device has both improved optical and electrical performance over a single-ring modulator. The dual-ring modulator can provide a feedback signal for active control of the modulation wavelength.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, “Integrated GHz silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale modulators and detectors,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15248–15256 ( 2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Akella, V.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Amirtharajah, R.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Binkert, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Dahlem, M.

Davis, A.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, D.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Djordjevic, S.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Fattal, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hastings, J. T.

Holzwarth, C. W.

Jouppi, N.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Li, D.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. Chen, K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, “Integrated GHz silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale modulators and detectors,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15248–15256 ( 2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11513–11518 ( 2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, P. Dong, M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, “Compact bandwidth-tunable microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3361–3363 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, “Optical bistability on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2387–2389 ( 2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Martinez, J.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, M.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, K.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Proietti, R.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Sai Tak, C.

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Santori, C.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schreiber, R.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shakya, J.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Smith, H. I.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Vantrease, D.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, M. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Wugen, P.

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, P. Dong, M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

J. Ahn, M. Fiorentino, R. Beausoleil, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, N. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. Santori, R. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, “Devices and architectures for photonic chip-scale integration,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 989–997 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, S. Djordjevic, R. Proietti, D. Ding, S. Yoo, R. Amirtharajah, V. Akella, “Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 1111–1118 ( 2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 ( 1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Sai Tak, B. E. Little, P. Wugen, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, “Second-order filter response from parallel coupled glass microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1426–1428 ( 1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

Q. Xu, P. Dong, M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 ( 2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438(7064), 65–69 ( 2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, K. Pathak, “4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601–044608 ( 2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6463–6468 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “Cascaded silicon micro-ring modulators for WDM optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9431–9435 ( 2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 ( 2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Sun, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Dahlem, J. T. Hastings, H. I. Smith, “Accurate frequency alignment in fabrication of high-order microring-resonator filters,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15958–15963 ( 2008).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

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