Abstract

Vertical plasmonic Mach-Zehnder Interferometers are investigated theoretically and experimentally, and their potential for ultra-sensitive optical sensing is discussed. Plasmonic interferences arise from coherently coupled pairs of subwavelength slits, illuminated by a broadband optical source, and this interference modulates the intensity of the far-field scattering spectrum. Experimental results, obtained using a simple experimental setup, are presented to validate theoretically predicted interferences introduced by the surface plasmon modes on top and bottom surfaces of a metal film. By observing the wavelength shift of the peaks or valleys of the interference pattern, this highly compact device has the potential to achieve a very high sensitivity relative to other nanoplasmonic architectures reported.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (7)

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, J. C. Yang, and D. N. Larson, “Nanohole arrays of mixed designs and microwriting for simultaneous and multiple protein binding studies,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(9), 2847–2852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, J. Zhang, J. Chen, C. Zhao, and Q. Gong, “Refractive index sensor based on surface-plasmon interference,” Optim. Lett. 34(3), 392 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Lee, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Refractive index sensing using quasi one-dimensional nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2584–2588 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weiner, “The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(6), 064401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (13)

H. W. Kihm, G. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and P. Q. Han, “Control of surface Plasmon generation efficiency by silt-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fu, Q. Gan, K Gao, G Wang, Z Pan, and F Bartoli,. “Numerical Investigation of a Bidirectional Wave Coupler Based on Surface Plasmonic Polarition Bragg Gratings in Near Infrared Spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3699 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metal grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral Self-Interference Fluorescence Microscopy for Subcellular Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 217–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic sensing of biological analytes through nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced Plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons,” Optim. Lett. 32(10), 1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García de Abajo and F. J Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(4), 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Moiseev, M. S. Unlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(8), 2623–2628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Optim. Lett. 31(10), 1528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5649–5660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dommguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interferometry of neuronal cell adhesion on microstructured silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(23), 5241–5244 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, and C. Dominguez, “The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener, and K. Cammann, “A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer on silicon,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 44(1-3), 350–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abad, A

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metal grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergstein, D. A.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilenca, A.

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaikie, R. J.

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bornhop, D. J.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, D.

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D. Braun and P. Fromherz, “Fluorescence interferometry of neuronal cell adhesion on microstructured silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(23), 5241–5244 (1998).
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Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metal grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
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Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rainbow” trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056801 (2009).
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Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, “Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metal grating structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256803 (2008).
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Z. Fu, Q. Gan, K Gao, G Wang, Z Pan, and F Bartoli,. “Numerical Investigation of a Bidirectional Wave Coupler Based on Surface Plasmonic Polarition Bragg Gratings in Near Infrared Spectrum,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3699 (2008).
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F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener, and K. Cammann, “A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer on silicon,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 44(1-3), 350–355 (1997).
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E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
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J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
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A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
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H. W. Kihm, G. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and P. Q. Han, “Control of surface Plasmon generation efficiency by silt-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, and C. Dominguez, “The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, L. K.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kussrow, A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacher, M.

F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener, and K. Cammann, “A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer on silicon,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 44(1-3), 350–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces,” Nat. Phys. 2(8), 551–556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

Larson, D. N.

J. Ji, J. C. Yang, and D. N. Larson, “Nanohole arrays of mixed designs and microwriting for simultaneous and multiple protein binding studies,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(9), 2847–2852 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Yang, J. Ji, J. M. Hogle, and D. N. Larson, “Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2718–2724 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latham, J. C.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leathem, B.

A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Surface plasmon sensor based on the enhanced light transmission through arrays of nanoholes in gold films,” Langmuir 20(12), 4813–4815 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechuga, L. M

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dommguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, and C. Dominguez, “The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. K.

H. W. Kihm, G. K. Lee, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and P. Q. Han, “Control of surface Plasmon generation efficiency by silt-width tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

M. H. Lee, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Refractive index sensing using quasi one-dimensional nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2584–2588 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. W.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesuffleur, A.

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced Plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindquist, N. C.

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced Plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llober, A

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dommguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, N. H.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malyarchuk, V.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, S.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markov, D. A.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, J. S.

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moiseev, L.

L. Moiseev, M. S. Unlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(8), 2623–2628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montoya, A

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, E. H.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic sensing of biological analytes through nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Needham, J. W.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Connell, J. G.

J. Ji, J. G. O’Connell, D. J. Carter, and D. N. Larson, “High-throughput nanohole array based system to monitor multiple binding events in real time,” Anal. Chem. 80(7), 2491–2498 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

M. H. Lee, H. Gao, and T. W. Odom, “Refractive index sensing using quasi one-dimensional nanoslit arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2584–2588 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, “Multiscale patterning of plasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(9), 549–554 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

H. Im, A. Lesuffleur, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Plasmonic nanoholes in a multichannel microarray format for parallel kinetic assays and differential sensing,” Anal. Chem. 81(8), 2854–2859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, and S. H. Oh, “Periodic nanohole arrays with shape-enhanced Plasmon resonance as real-time biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozkumur, E.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Z

Pang, L.

G. M. Hwang, L. Pang, E. H. Mullen, and Y. Fainman, “Plasmonic sensing of biological analytes through nanoholes,” IEEE Sens. J. 8(12), 2074–2079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Optim. Lett. 31(10), 1528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peel, L. L.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dommguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raftery, L.

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodier, J. C.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Approximate model for surface-plasmon generation at slit apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1608 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schipper, E. F.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, and C. Dominguez, “The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedoglavich, N.

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepulveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, and A LloberaC Dominguez, A Abad, A Montoya, and L. M Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dommguez, and L. M. Lechuga, “Integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on ARROW structures for biosensor applications,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 92(1-2), 151–158 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, J. C.

J. C. Sharpe, J. S. Mitchell, L. Lin, N. Sedoglavich, and R. J. Blaikie, “Gold nanohole array substrates as immunobiosensors,” Anal. Chem. 80(6), 2244–2249 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shtengel, G.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinton, D.

A. De Leebeeck, L. K. Kumar, V. de Lange, D. Sinton, R. Gordon, and A. G. Brolo, “On-chip surface-based detection with nanohole arrays,” Anal. Chem. 79(11), 4094–4100 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, J. A. N.

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sørensen, H. S.

D. J. Bornhop, J. C. Latham, A. Kussrow, D. A. Markov, R. D. Jones, and H. S. Sørensen, “Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry,” Science 317(5845), 1732–1736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

G. Shtengel, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, J. M. Gillette, S. Manley, R. Sougrat, C. M. Waterman, P. Kanchanawong, M. W. Davidson, R. D. Fetter, and H. F. Hess, “Interferometric fluorescent super-resolution microscopy resolves 3D cellular ultrastructure,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(9), 3125–3130 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spener, F.

F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener, and K. Cammann, “A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach–Zehnder interferometer on silicon,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 44(1-3), 350–355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, N. H. Mack, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. N. Soares, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Quantitative multispectral biosensing and 1D imaging using quasi-3D plasmonic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17143–17148 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swan, A. K.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral Self-Interference Fluorescence Microscopy for Subcellular Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 217–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Moiseev, M. S. Unlü, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, and C. R. Cantor, “DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(8), 2623–2628 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, M. J.

M. J. Swann, L. L. Peel, S. Carrington, and N. J. Freeman, “Dual-polarization interferometry: an analytical technique to measure changes in protein structure in real time, to determine the stoichiometry of binding events, and to differentiate between specific and nonspecific interactions,” Anal. Biochem. 329(2), 190–198 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

A. Bilenca, J. Cao, M. Colice, A. Ozcan, B. Bouma, L. Raftery, and G. Tearney, “Fluorescence interferometry: principles and applications in biology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1130(1), 68–77 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, U. Woggon, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface Plasmon interferometry: measuring group velocity of surface plasmons,” Optim. Lett. 32(10), 1235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

K. A. Tetz, L. Pang, and Y. Fainman, “High-resolution surface Plasmon resonance sensor based on linewidth-optimized nanohole array transmittance,” Optim. Lett. 31(10), 1528 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unlu, M. S.

M. Dogan, A. Yalcin, S. Jain, M. B. Goldberg, A. K. Swan, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Spectral Self-Interference Fluorescence Microscopy for Subcellular Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(1), 217–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Unlü, M. S.

E. Ozkumur, J. W. Needham, D. A. Bergstein, R. Gonzalez, M. Cabodi, J. M. Gershoni, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, “Label-free and dynamic detection of biomolecular interactions for high-throughput microarray applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(23), 7988–7992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The phase modulation properties of VPMZI. The upper inset: The interference path related to the SPP modes on the top and bottom interfaces. The lower inset: Intensity modulation output signal from the VPMZI modeled by FDTD simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical sensitivity (absolute value) of the VPMZI obtained by Eq. (1). The thickness of the Au film is 200nm. The gap between the two slits is 70μm, and the width of each slit is 400nm. In this calculation, the refractive index for the top layer is 1.33.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical modeling for the interference signal of the scattered light from the slit on the Au film shown in Fig. 1 (a). The refractive indices of the substrates are 1.46 (a), 1.36 (b) and 1.35 (c), respectively. The gap between the two slits is fixed to be 70μm. The upper panels are FDTD modeling results, and the lower panels are results obtained using the term cos [ 2 π L λ ( ε m ' ( λ ) n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) n 2 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 2 2 ) ] .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Sketch of the doublet geometry. (b) A scanning electron microscope image of a doublet structure with a slit–slit separation distance of 15.73μm. (c) SPP-mediated spectral interference introduced by the SPP modes from the top and bottom surfaces: Here we study 4 doublet samples on a Ag film with slit–slit separation distances of 10.50μm (bottom), 13.12μm (lower center), 15.73μm (upper center) and 20.98μm (top). Bold solid lines are measurement results and the thin solid lines are theoretical predictions.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ ϕ = 2 π L λ ( ε m ' ( λ ) n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) ( n 1 + Δ n 1 ) 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + ( n 1 + Δ n 1 ) 2 )
S = Δ λ Δ n = λ n 1 3 ( ε m ' ( λ ) n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 1 2 ) 3 / 2 / ( ε m ' ( λ ) n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 1 2 ε m ' ( λ ) n 2 2 ε m ' ( λ ) + n 2 2 )

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