Abstract

We present a versatile terahertz time-domain spectrometer which allows reflection measurements at normal incidence and double pass transmission measurements in a single experimental setup. Two different modes for transmission measurements are demonstrated for precise measurements of transparent high or low refractive index materials, respectively. The refractive indices and absorption coefficients of cesium iodide, potassium bromide, sodium chloride, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), and silicon have been measured in the frequency range between 1.4 and 4.7 THz. The parameters of the Lorentz oscillator functions describing the phonon polariton dispersions of CsI and KBr have been determined.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3032-3034 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823-831 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Schneider and P. Gunter, "Measurement of the terahertz-induced phase shift in electro-optic sampling for an arbitrary biasing phase," Appl. Opt. 45, 6598-6601 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. G¨unter, "Generation of terahertz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Gunter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 409-415 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. H. Martin, "The study of the vibrations of crystal lattices by far infra-red spectroscopy," Adv. Phys. 14, 39-99 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. U. Jepsen and B. M. Fischer, "Dynamic range in terahertz time-domain transmission and reflection spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 30, 29-31 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Okada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, "Resonant phase jump with enhanced electric field caused by surface phonon polariton in terahertz region," Opt. Express 16, 5633-5641 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. P. Lowndes and D. H. Martin, "Dielectric dispersion and the structures of ionic lattices," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 308, 473-496 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Fertel and C. H. Perry, "Optical phonons in KCl1−xBrx and K1−xRbxI mixed crystals," Phys. Rev. 184, 874-884 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Stillhart, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Optical properties of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate crystals at terahertz frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1914-1919 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. D. J. Brunner, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Velocity-matched terahertz generation by optical rectification in an organic nonlinear optical crystal using a Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061119 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. D. J. Brunner, O-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "A hydrogen-bonded organic nonlinear optical crystal for high-efficiency terahertz generation and detection," Opt. Express 16, 16496-16508 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. D. J. Brunner, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Velocity-matched terahertz generation by optical rectification in an organic nonlinear optical crystal using a Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

T. Okada, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, "Resonant phase jump with enhanced electric field caused by surface phonon polariton in terahertz region," Opt. Express 16, 5633-5641 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. D. J. Brunner, O-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "A hydrogen-bonded organic nonlinear optical crystal for high-efficiency terahertz generation and detection," Opt. Express 16, 16496-16508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stillhart, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Optical properties of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate crystals at terahertz frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1914-1919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Gunter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 409-415 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3032-3034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1969 (2)

R. P. Lowndes and D. H. Martin, "Dielectric dispersion and the structures of ionic lattices," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 308, 473-496 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Fertel and C. H. Perry, "Optical phonons in KCl1−xBrx and K1−xRbxI mixed crystals," Phys. Rev. 184, 874-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

D. H. Martin, "The study of the vibrations of crystal lattices by far infra-red spectroscopy," Adv. Phys. 14, 39-99 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bahr, L.

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Gunter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigourd, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Bosshard, Ch.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, F. D. J.

F. D. J. Brunner, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Velocity-matched terahertz generation by optical rectification in an organic nonlinear optical crystal using a Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. D. J. Brunner, O-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "A hydrogen-bonded organic nonlinear optical crystal for high-efficiency terahertz generation and detection," Opt. Express 16, 16496-16508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

Cho, G. C.

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

Cuisset, A.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

Fattinger, Ch.

Fertel, J. H.

J. H. Fertel and C. H. Perry, "Optical phonons in KCl1−xBrx and K1−xRbxI mixed crystals," Phys. Rev. 184, 874-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G¨unter, P.

Garet, F.

Grischkowsky, D.

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3032-3034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

F. D. J. Brunner, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Velocity-matched terahertz generation by optical rectification in an organic nonlinear optical crystal using a Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Stillhart, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Optical properties of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate crystals at terahertz frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1914-1919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider and P. Gunter, "Measurement of the terahertz-induced phase shift in electro-optic sampling for an arbitrary biasing phase," Appl. Opt. 45, 6598-6601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Gunter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hasek, T.

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

Isaac, T. H.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, Ch.

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

Jeon, T. I.

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3032-3034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Jiang, Z.

Jordens, C.

C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kagoshima, S.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, J. T.

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, R. U. A.

Khazan, M.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knopfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, J. S.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, R.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ku?zel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O-P.

Kwon, S.-J.

Lampin, J. F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lowndes, R. P.

R. P. Lowndes and D. H. Martin, "Dielectric dispersion and the structures of ionic lattices," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 308, 473-496 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, D. H.

R. P. Lowndes and D. H. Martin, "Dielectric dispersion and the structures of ionic lattices," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 308, 473-496 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Martin, "The study of the vibrations of crystal lattices by far infra-red spectroscopy," Adv. Phys. 14, 39-99 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Matton, S.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, R.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Mohler, E.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, O.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N?emec, H.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

Nashima, S.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neis, M.

Nuss, M. C.

Okada, T.

Pan, F.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pernisz, U. C.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perry, C. H.

J. H. Fertel and C. H. Perry, "Optical phonons in KCl1−xBrx and K1−xRbxI mixed crystals," Phys. Rev. 184, 874-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, B.

Schall, M.

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jordens, M. Scheller, M. Wichmann, M. Mikulics, K. Wiesauer, and M. Koch, "Terahertz birefringence for orientation analysis," Appl. Opt. 48, 2037-2044 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherger, B.

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

Shimano, R.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stillhart, M.

Takata, K.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

Tani, M.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Vieweg, N.

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. Q.

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, M.

Wiesauer, K.

Wilke, I.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823-831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhiping, J.

M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

D. H. Martin, "The study of the vibrations of crystal lattices by far infra-red spectroscopy," Adv. Phys. 14, 39-99 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, and D. Lippens, "Anomalous dispersion measurement in terahertz frequency region by photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. D. J. Brunner, A. Schneider, and P. Gunter, "Velocity-matched terahertz generation by optical rectification in an organic nonlinear optical crystal using a Ti:sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gunter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4_-N_-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Gunter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, "Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3032-3034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, G. C. Cho, T. M. Lu, X.-C. Zhang, S. Q. Wang, and J. T. Kennedy, "Time-domain dielectric constant measurement of thin film in GHz-THz frequency range near the Brewster angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2113-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, "Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3923-3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Tani, J. Zhiping, and X.-C. Zhang, "Photoconductive terahertz transceiver," Electron. Lett. 36, 804-805 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, T. Hasek, N. Vieweg, B. Scherger, L. Bahr, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, "Fibre-coupled terahertz transceiver head," Electron. Lett. 44, 1473-1475 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz timedomain spectroscopy," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Bauer, J. S. Kolb, T. Loffler, E. Mohler, H. G. Roskos, and U. C. Pernisz, "Indium-tin-oxide-coated glass as dichroic mirror for far-infrared electromagnetic radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2210-2212 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Scheller, Ch. Jansen, and M. Koch, "Analyzing sub-100-μm samples with transmission terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 282, 1304-1306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. H. Fertel and C. H. Perry, "Optical phonons in KCl1−xBrx and K1−xRbxI mixed crystals," Phys. Rev. 184, 874-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, "Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Stat. Sol. B 245, 2688-2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

R. P. Lowndes and D. H. Martin, "Dielectric dispersion and the structures of ionic lattices," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 308, 473-496 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, "Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3427-3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Nˇemec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kuˇzel, "Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4711-4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of the terahertz time-domain spectrometer for simultaneous transmission and reflection measurements: BS, beam splitter; ITO, glass plate coated with indium tin oxide; DAST, 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate crystal used as terahertz transceiver; Ge, germanium crystal. Inset: The sample holder can be moved perpendicular to the terahertz beam into three different positions. In the first position, the terahertz pulse reflected from the sample or transmitted through the sample is measured. In the second and third positions, the terahertz signal reflected from the planar mirror or from the spherical mirror is used as a reference signal for reflection or for double pass transmission measurements, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Refractive index and absorption coefficient of CsI measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in reflection at normal incidence. Dots: measured data; solid lines: best fit to the measured data using a Lorentz oscillator function (see Eqs. (8)(10) and Table 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index and absorption coefficient of KBr measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in reflection at normal incidence. Dots: measured data; solid lines: best fit to the measured data using a Lorentz oscillator function (see Eqs. (8)(10) and Table 1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index and absorption coefficient of NaCl measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in reflection at normal incidence. Dots: measured data; solid lines: theoretical dispersion calculated from Eqs. (8)(10) using the parameters from Ref. [22].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Refractive index and absorption coefficient of PTFE measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in a double pass transmission configuration where the terahertz pulse is back-reflected from an external spherical mirror (see text for details).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Refractive index and absorption coefficient of silicon measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in two different double pass transmission configurations (see text for details). Solid lines: the terahertz pulse is back-reflected from the rear surface of the sample. Dashed lines: the terahertz pulse is back-reflected from an external spherical mirror.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for the dielectric dispersion of the alkali halide crystals CsI, KBr, and NaCl in the harmonic approximation.a

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E sample ( ν ) E ref . ( ν ) exp ( i [ ϕ sample ( ν ) ϕ ref . ( ν ) ] ) r ( ν ) exp [ i ϕ ( ν ) ] = n ( ν ) + ( ν ) 1 n ( ν ) + ( ν ) + 1 ,
n ( ν ) = 1 r ( ν ) 2 1 + r ( ν ) 2 2 r ( ν ) cos ϕ ( ν ) ,
α ( ν ) = 4 πν c 2 r ( ν ) sin ϕ ( ν ) 1 + r ( ν ) 2 2 r ( ν ) cos ϕ ( ν ) .
n ( ν ) = c ( ϕ sample 2 pass ( ν ) ϕ ref . 2 pass ( ν ) ) 4 πνl + 1 ,
α ( ν ) = 1 l ln  ( E sample 2 pass E ref . 2 pass ( ν ) ( n + 1 ) 4 ( 4 n ) 2 ) .
n ( ν ) = c ( ϕ sample rear surface ( ν ) ϕ ref . ( ν ) π ) 4 πνl ,
α ( ν ) = 1 l ln ( E sample rear surface ( ν ) E ref . ( ν ) ( n + 1 ) 3 4 n ( n 1 ) ) .
δn = n l δl 2 + δx 2 .
n ( ν ) = c ( ϕ sample rear surface ( ν ) ϕ sample ( ν ) π ) 4 πνl ,
α ( ν ) = 1 l ln ( E sample rear surface ( ν ) E sample ( ν ) ( n + 1 ) 2 4 n ) .
ε ( ν ) = ε ( ν LO 2 ν 2 ) ( ν TO 2 ν 2 ) + γ 2 ν 2 ( ν TO 2 ν 2 ) 2 + γ 2 ν 2 ,
ε ( ν ) = ε ( ν LO 2 ν TO 2 ) γν ( ν TO 2 ν 2 ) 2 + γ 2 ν 2 ,
n ( ν ) = 1 2 [ ε ( ν ) 2 + ε ( ν ) 2 + ε ( ν ) ] ,
α ( ν ) = 4 πν c 1 2 [ ε ( ν ) 2 + ε ( ν ) 2 ε ( ν ) ]

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