Abstract

A Ho:YLF laser pumped HBr molecular laser was developed that produced up to 2.5mJ of energy in the 4 micron wavelength region. The Ho:YLF laser was fiber pumped using a commercial Tm:fibre laser. The Ho:YLF laser was operated in a single longitudinal mode via injection seeding with a narrow band diode laser which in turn was locked to one of the HBr transitions. The behavior of the HBr laser was described using a rate equation mathematical model and this was solved numerically. Good agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively between the model and experimental results was obtained.

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References

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  1. H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, and T. E. Drake, “High-power, high-energy Ho:YLF laser pumped with Tm:fiber laser,” in Conference of Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America 2005) paper PD2–1
  4. C. Bollig, M. J. D. Esser, C. Jacobs, W. Koen, D. Preussler, K. Nyangaza, and M. Schellhorn, “70 mJ Single-Frequency Q Switched Ho:YLF Ring Laser - Amplifier System Pumped by a Single 82-W Tm Fibre Laser,” Conference on Middle-Infrared Coherent Sources, (European Physical Society 2009) Invited Talk Mo3.
  5. C. Bollig, H. J. Strauss, M. J. D. Esser, W. Koen, M.Schellhorn, D. Preussler, K. Nyangaza, C. Jacobs, E. H. Bernardi and L. R. Botha, “Compact Fibre-Laser-Pumped Ho:YLF Oscillator-Amplifier System” CLEO/Europe (Optical Society of America 2009) paper CA1.3 MON.
  6. E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. V. Vassiliev, M. A. Kyzmina, T. T. Basiev, and G. D. Hager, Numerical modeling and optimization of the optically pumped mid-infrared molecular laser”, in Proccedings of SPIE4760, 1067–1077(2002)
  8. J. Nicholson and D. Neumann, “Cost Effective, scalable optically pumped molecular laser”, Air Force Research Laboratory report AFRL-DE-2001–1015, (2001).

2004 (1)

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Black, E. D.

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, N.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hager, G.

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C. R.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kletecka, C. S.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, H. C.

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nicolson, J. W.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radzykewycz, D. T.

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

E. D. Black, “An introduction to Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization,” Am. J. Phys. 69(1), 79–87 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. C. Miller, D. T. Radzykewycz, and G. Hager, “Optically Pumped Mid-Infrared HBr Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(10), 2395–2400 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kletecka, N. Campbell, C. R. Jones, J. W. Nicolson, and W. Rudolph, “Cascade Lasing of Molecular HBr in the Four Micron Region Pumped by a Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(10), 1471–1477 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Dergachev, P. F. Moulton, and T. E. Drake, “High-power, high-energy Ho:YLF laser pumped with Tm:fiber laser,” in Conference of Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America 2005) paper PD2–1

C. Bollig, M. J. D. Esser, C. Jacobs, W. Koen, D. Preussler, K. Nyangaza, and M. Schellhorn, “70 mJ Single-Frequency Q Switched Ho:YLF Ring Laser - Amplifier System Pumped by a Single 82-W Tm Fibre Laser,” Conference on Middle-Infrared Coherent Sources, (European Physical Society 2009) Invited Talk Mo3.

C. Bollig, H. J. Strauss, M. J. D. Esser, W. Koen, M.Schellhorn, D. Preussler, K. Nyangaza, C. Jacobs, E. H. Bernardi and L. R. Botha, “Compact Fibre-Laser-Pumped Ho:YLF Oscillator-Amplifier System” CLEO/Europe (Optical Society of America 2009) paper CA1.3 MON.

S. V. Vassiliev, M. A. Kyzmina, T. T. Basiev, and G. D. Hager, Numerical modeling and optimization of the optically pumped mid-infrared molecular laser”, in Proccedings of SPIE4760, 1067–1077(2002)

J. Nicholson and D. Neumann, “Cost Effective, scalable optically pumped molecular laser”, Air Force Research Laboratory report AFRL-DE-2001–1015, (2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The energy level diagram of a 2 micron pumped HBr laser is shown on the left. Pumping is from the ground vibrational level (V=0) to the V=2 vibrational level. Lasing occurs from V=2 to V=1. The rotational partition function of the vibrational ground state calculated at 300K is shown on the right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic outlay of the Ho:YLF pumped HBr laser

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured spatial profile of the Ho:YLF pulse is shown on the left. The output 2 micron pulse energy as function of the 1.9 micron average pump power is shown on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated and measured absorption for the P9 pump line

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Four micron output energy as function of the input pump energy

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured temporal and spatial beam profiles of the HBr laser are shown in the two figures above. On the left hand side is the temporal HBr 4 micron output pulse in blue with the 2 micron pump pulse in red. The pump duration (FWHM) was approximately 366ns and the output pulse width of the 4 micron pulse at FWHM was 132ns. The 4 micron spatial beam profile is shown on the right.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated temporal output pulse in blue shown with the 2 micron pump pulse in red. The FWHM of the pump pulse is 366 ns.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured and calculated efficiencies of converting 2 micron pump pulses to 4 micron output pulses. Efficiency is expressed relative to the absorbed pump power.

Equations (2)

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Ipump=[1eαlαl]
ElaserEpump=1(1+g2g1)λpumpλlaser

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