Abstract

Detection and measurement of subsurface damage of ground optical surfaces are of major concern in the assessment of high damage thresholds fused silica optics for high power laser applications. We herein detail a new principle of SSD measurement based on the utilization of HF acid etching. We also review and compare different subsurface damage (SSD) characterization techniques applied to ground and fine ground fused silica samples. We demonstrate good concordance between the different measurements.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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  1. H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignere, B. Le Garrec, and G. Raze, “The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers” in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5273, pp 312–324 (2004)
  2. D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).
  3. J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J.-C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, “Role of light intensification by cracks in optical breakdown on surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(10), 2607 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5273, pp 264–272 (2004)
  6. J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Josse, H. Bercegol, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, L. Lamaignere, B. Pussacq, and J. L. Rullier, “Study of the evolution of mechanical defects on silica samples under laser irradiation at 355 nm”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2006, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz Eds, Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030E (2006)
  8. A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, J. M. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches”, in Proceedings of Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, Eds, Proc. SPIE 3244, 341 (1998)
  9. H. Bercegol, and P. Grua, D. Hébert, J. P. Morreeuw, “Progress in the understanding of fracture related damage of fused silica”, in Proceedings of Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2007, Gregory J. Exarhos, Arthur H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200F (2007)
  10. J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV damage resistant fused silica optics”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2001)
  11. J. Neauport, D. Valla, J. Duchesne, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignere, J. Bigarre, and N. Daurios, “Building high damage threshold surfaces at 351nm”, in Proceedings of Optical Fabrication, Testing and Metrology: 2003, R. Geyl, D. Rimmer, L. Wang, eds, Proc. SPIE 5252, 131–139 (2003)
  12. W. J. Rupp, “Mechanism of the diamond lapping process,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1264–1269 (1974).
  13. P. Hed and D. F. Edwards, “Optical glass fabrication technology. 2: Relationship between surface roughness and subsurface damage,” Appl. Opt. 26(21), 4677 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Hed, D. F. Edwards, and J. B. Davis, “Subsurface damage in optical materials: origin, measurements and removal”, in Collected papers from ASPE Spring Conference on subsurface damage in glass, Tucson, AZ, 1989.
  15. Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Carr, E. Fearon, L. J. Summers, and I. D. Hutcheon, “Subsurface damage assessment with atomic force microscopy”, in Proceedings of the 1st international conference and general meeting if the European society of precision engineering and nanotechnology, Bremen, Germany, (1999)
  17. J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage”, in Proceedings of Optical, manufacturing and testing conference, P. Stahl, ed, Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999)
  18. J. C. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. D. Jacobs, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, “Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials,” Appl. Opt. 44(12), 2241 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5991, 56–68 (2005)
  20. T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Kline and H. S. Fogler, “Dissolution kinetics: Catalytics by strong acids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 82(1), 93–102 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Subsurface damage fluorescence of ground fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Subsurface damage fluorescence of ground fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2001

1998

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

1994

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

1981

W. Kline and H. S. Fogler, “Dissolution kinetics: Catalytics by strong acids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 82(1), 93–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974

Ambard, C.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Subsurface damage fluorescence of ground fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bercegol, H.

Birolleau, J.-C.

Camp, D. W.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Chase, L. L.

Cormont, P.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, P. Legros, C. Ambard, and J. Destribats, “Subsurface damage fluorescence of ground fused silica optics,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3543–3554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Destribats, J.

Dovik, M.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Edwards, D. F.

Feit, M. D.

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fogler, H. S.

W. Kline and H. S. Fogler, “Dissolution kinetics: Catalytics by strong acids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 82(1), 93–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Funkenbusch, P. D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F. Y.

Golini, D.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hed, P.

Jacobs, S. D.

Kline, W.

W. Kline and H. S. Fogler, “Dissolution kinetics: Catalytics by strong acids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 82(1), 93–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Lamaignere, L.

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Legros, P.

Lindquist, A.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neauport, J.

Nichols, M.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Pilon, F.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J.-C. Birolleau, “Polishing-induced contamination of fused silica optics and laser induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10163–10171 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistor, T. V.

Quesnel, D. J.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raether, R.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Randi, J. C.

Rupp, W. J.

Salleo, A.

Sheehan, L.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Steele, R.

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T.

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I.

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

Walmer, D.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L.

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE

D. W. Camp, M. Kozlowski, L. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, “Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355 nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials Proc. SPIE 3244, 356–364 (1998).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

Y. Zhou, P. D. Funkenbusch, D. J. Quesnel, D. Golini, and A. Lindquist, “Effect of etching and imaging mode on the measurement of subsurface damage in microground optical glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(12), 3277–3280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

W. Kline and H. S. Fogler, “Dissolution kinetics: Catalytics by strong acids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 82(1), 93–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Non Cryst. Sol.

T. Suratwala, L. Wong, P. Miller, M. D. Feit, J. Menapace, R. Steele, P. Davis, and D. Walmer, “Sub-surface mechanical damage distributions during grinding of fused silica,” J. Non Cryst. Sol. 352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, “The effect of HF/NH4F etching on the morphology of surface fractures on fused silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(13), 797–810 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

J. Neauport, P. Cormont, C. Ambard, and F. Pilon, “Concerning the impact of polishing induced contamination of fused silica optics on the laser-induced damage density at 351 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3802–3805 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Influence of subsurface cracks on laser induced surface damage”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5273, pp 264–272 (2004)

M. A. Josse, H. Bercegol, R. Courchinoux, T. Donval, L. Lamaignere, B. Pussacq, and J. L. Rullier, “Study of the evolution of mechanical defects on silica samples under laser irradiation at 355 nm”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2006, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz Eds, Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030E (2006)

A. Salleo, F. Y. Genin, J. M. Yoshiyama, C. J. Stolz, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Laser-induced damage of fused silica at 355 nm initiated at scratches”, in Proceedings of Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, M. J. Soileau, Eds, Proc. SPIE 3244, 341 (1998)

H. Bercegol, and P. Grua, D. Hébert, J. P. Morreeuw, “Progress in the understanding of fracture related damage of fused silica”, in Proceedings of Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2007, Gregory J. Exarhos, Arthur H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, D. Ristau, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200F (2007)

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. F. Slomba, P. E. Miller, T. G. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, “Combined advanced finishing and UV-laser conditioning for producing UV damage resistant fused silica optics”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56–68 (2001)

J. Neauport, D. Valla, J. Duchesne, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignere, J. Bigarre, and N. Daurios, “Building high damage threshold surfaces at 351nm”, in Proceedings of Optical Fabrication, Testing and Metrology: 2003, R. Geyl, D. Rimmer, L. Wang, eds, Proc. SPIE 5252, 131–139 (2003)

H. Bercegol, P. Bouchut, L. Lamaignere, B. Le Garrec, and G. Raze, “The impact of laser damage on the lifetime of optical components in fusion lasers” in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials: 2003, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5273, pp 312–324 (2004)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, L. L. Wong, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, P. J. Davis, and R. A. Steele, “The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica”, in Proceedings of Laser-induced Damage Threshold in Optical Materials, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, N. Kaiser, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, Eds, Proc. SPIE 5991, 56–68 (2005)

J. W. Carr, E. Fearon, L. J. Summers, and I. D. Hutcheon, “Subsurface damage assessment with atomic force microscopy”, in Proceedings of the 1st international conference and general meeting if the European society of precision engineering and nanotechnology, Bremen, Germany, (1999)

J. C. Lambropoulos, Y. Li, P. Funkenbusch, and J. Ruckman, “Non-contact estimate of grinding subsurface damage”, in Proceedings of Optical, manufacturing and testing conference, P. Stahl, ed, Proc. SPIE 3782, 41–50 (1999)

P. Hed, D. F. Edwards, and J. B. Davis, “Subsurface damage in optical materials: origin, measurements and removal”, in Collected papers from ASPE Spring Conference on subsurface damage in glass, Tucson, AZ, 1989.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Depth profiles of Ba concentration for D64-ground samples (a) without spiking (b) with Ba spiking of the grinder coolant. Thanks to Ba spiking in the later case, SSD can be measured with a depth of 19 µm ± 2 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Roughness profile evolution during HF etching for a D64-ground sample

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

MRF dimpling principle

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical microscope image of a MRF dimple showing SSD transition (1 graduation = 80µm) – D64 machined fused silica sample. The doted line indicates the position of the last visible crack giving the depth of the SSD

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Empirical law for SSD estimation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sample preparation methods

Tables Icon

Table 3 Influence of the process level on acid etch rate (mass loss)

Tables Icon

Table 4 ICP-AES measurement of Barium concentration in grinder coolant fluid

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of different SSD measurements methods on various diamond ground samples. For the MRF taper method, both Nomarski and confocal microscopy evaluations are given. All quantities are expressed in microns.

Equations (1)

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SiO2+6HFSiF62+2H3O+

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