Abstract

Periodic nanostructures fabricated by Nanoimprint Litography (NIL) in low-cost plastic substrates and coated with thin gold film were explored for enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) detection. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis was used to model the SPRi response of these nanostructured surfaces. Two-dimensional nanogratings and nanogrooves were fabricated on Zeonor 1060RTM by NIL and followed by metal deposition. The detection of refractive index changes in the dielectric layer due to bulk medium change, DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization events were monitored using SPRi to assess the corresponding signal amplification. The results indicate target-dependent sensitivity enhancement which is maximized for the detection of biomolecular binding events. The 500 nm period nanogrooves provided a 4 times SPR signal amplification compared to the conventional uniform gold film on SF-11 glass for DNA hybridization detection. Our work demonstrates that the use of nanoimprinted plastic substrates provides a low-cost solution for the SPR-based detection with sensitivity that meets the requirements in practical diagnostic applications.

© 2009 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (1)

L. Malic, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2218–2224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 117(2), 401–407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, “Effect of resonant localized plasmon coupling on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-based surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(9), 2307–2314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Elhadj, G. Singh, and R. F. Saraf, “Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm,” Langmuir 20(13), 5539–5543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29(24), 5163–5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alleyne, C. J.

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, K. M.

Cui, B.

Dahlin, A. B.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duyne, R. P. V.

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elhadj, S.

S. Elhadj, G. Singh, and R. F. Saraf, “Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm,” Langmuir 20(13), 5539–5543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Georgiadis, R. M.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29(24), 5163–5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haes, A. J.

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heaton, R. J.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29(24), 5163–5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Höök, F.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, P. S.

Kim, S. J.

Kirk, A. G.

Lee, G.

Malic, L.

L. Malic, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2218–2224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Malic, B. Cui, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization on periodic gold nanoposts,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3092–3094 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maystre, D.

McPhedran, R. C.

Nicorovici, N.-A. P.

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, C. H.

Park, S.

Peterson, A. W.

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29(24), 5163–5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraf, R. F.

S. Elhadj, G. Singh, and R. F. Saraf, “Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm,” Langmuir 20(13), 5539–5543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shuler, M. L.

Singh, G.

S. Elhadj, G. Singh, and R. F. Saraf, “Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm,” Langmuir 20(13), 5539–5543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, S. H.

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabrizian, M.

L. Malic, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2218–2224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Malic, B. Cui, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization on periodic gold nanoposts,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3092–3094 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tegenfeldt, J. O.

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veres, T.

L. Malic, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2218–2224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Malic, B. Cui, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization on periodic gold nanoposts,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3092–3094 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S. J.

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Haes and R. P. V. Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. B. Dahlin, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and F. Höök, “Improving the instrumental resolution of sensors based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4416–4423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

L. Malic, T. Veres, and M. Tabrizian, “Biochip functionalization using electrowetting-on-dielectric digital microfluidics for surface plasmon resonance imaging detection of DNA hybridization,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(7), 2218–2224 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Langmuir (1)

S. Elhadj, G. Singh, and R. F. Saraf, “Optical properties of an immobilized DNA monolayer from 255 to 700 nm,” Langmuir 20(13), 5539–5543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

A. W. Peterson, R. J. Heaton, and R. M. Georgiadis, “The effect of surface probe density on DNA hybridization,” Nucleic Acids Res. 29(24), 5163–5168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sens. Actuators B. (1)

K. M. Byun, D. Kim, and S. J. Kim, “Investigation of the profile effect on the sensitivity enhancement of nanowire-mediated localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B. 117(2), 401–407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of investigated SPR biosensor structures (a) nanogratings (b) nanogrooves (c) conventional planar gold SPR interface (control)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerically obtained SEF that corresponds to different target analyte for SPR substrates with 500 nm and 600 nm period nanogrooves and nanogratings

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM and AFM images of (a) 500 nm period nanogratings and (b) 500 nm period nanogrooves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of SPRi optical setup

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of experimentally and numerically obtained SEF for different salt concentrations in water (different bulk medium refractive index change).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SPRi Kinetic curves showing binding reactions on gold-coated nanostructured plastic substrates for (a) 2 hrs immobilization of 1 µM DNA probe; (b) 10 min hybridization of 250 nM DNA target; (c) DNA hybridization concentration gradient comparing the detection limits of nanogroove sensor surface to that of control.

Equations (1)

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SEF=|ΔθNSPRΔθSPR|=|θNSPR(n2)θNSPR(n1)θSPR(n2)θSPR(n1)|

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