Abstract

We demonstrate an electrically-pumped hybrid silicon microring laser fabricated by a self-aligned process. The compact structure (D = 50 μm) and small electrical and optical losses result in lasing threshold as low as 5.4 mA and up to 65 °C operation temperature in continuous-wave (cw) mode. The spectrum is single mode with large extinction ratio and small linewidth observed. Application as on-chip optical interconnects is discussed from a system perspective.

© 2009 OSA

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2009 (4)

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, A. Ramachandran, and S.-J. Ja, “Integrated microring resonator biosensors for monitoring cell growth and detectionr of toxic chemicals in water,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(10), 3061–3066 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperature InP-to-Silicon Direct Wafer Bonding on the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(4), 1560–1568 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Passive ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interleaver on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8359–8365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Franz, “Damage in III/V semiconductors caused by hard- and soft-etching plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19(3), 762–772 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. S.-H. Liao and S. Wang, “Semiconductor injection lasers with a circular resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(10), 801–803 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andrianov, A. V.

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, C. R.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Böttcher, E. H.

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boudjani, A.

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperature InP-to-Silicon Direct Wafer Bonding on the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(4), 1560–1568 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2315–2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6044–6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent laser fabricated with a silicon waveguide and III-V offset quantum wells,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9460–9464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull, S.

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-G.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cleton, F.

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Cioccio, L.

Donati, S.

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fang, Q.

Fattal, D.

Fedeli, J. M.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franz, G.

G. Franz, “Damage in III/V semiconductors caused by hard- and soft-etching plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19(3), 762–772 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furst, S.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, I.

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ja, S.-J.

S. Wang, A. Ramachandran, and S.-J. Ja, “Integrated microring resonator biosensors for monitoring cell growth and detectionr of toxic chemicals in water,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(10), 3061–3066 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Je, K.-C.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, S.

Kollakowski, S.

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Kuo, Ying-Hao

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Lagahe, C.

Larkins, E. C.

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperature InP-to-Silicon Direct Wafer Bonding on the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(4), 1560–1568 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, Di

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, A. S.-H.

A. S.-H. Liao and S. Wang, “Semiconductor injection lasers with a circular resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(10), 801–803 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.-T.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lively, E.

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. S.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mezosi, G.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michaille, L. F.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noh, S. K.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Park, S.-H.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prabhu, A. M.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raday, O.

Ramachandran, A.

S. Wang, A. Ramachandran, and S.-J. Ja, “Integrated microring resonator biosensors for monitoring cell growth and detectionr of toxic chemicals in water,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(10), 3061–3066 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regreny, P.

Rojo Romeo, P.

Rudra, A.

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schade, U.

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seassal, C.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, T. J.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, B.

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sorel, M.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strain, M. J.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M. N.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S. H.

Taylor, D. M.

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, A.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vien, V.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, A. Ramachandran, and S.-J. Ja, “Integrated microring resonator biosensors for monitoring cell growth and detectionr of toxic chemicals in water,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(10), 3061–3066 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S.-H. Liao and S. Wang, “Semiconductor injection lasers with a circular resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(10), 801–803 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yim, S.-Y.

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

Yu, S.

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhanghua, H.

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. S.-H. Liao and S. Wang, “Semiconductor injection lasers with a circular resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36(10), 801–803 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Schade, S. Kollakowski, E. H. Böttcher, and D. Bimberg, “Improved performance of large-area InP/InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors by sulfur passivation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(11), 1389–1391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sorel, P. J. R. Laybourn, G. Giuliani, and S. Donati, “Unidirectional bistability in semiconductor waveguide ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(17), 3051–3053 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. Wang, A. Ramachandran, and S.-J. Ja, “Integrated microring resonator biosensors for monitoring cell growth and detectionr of toxic chemicals in water,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(10), 3061–3066 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. M. Taylor, C. R. Bennett, T. J. Shepherd, L. F. Michaille, M. D. Nielsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Demonstration of multi-core photonic crystal fibre in an optical interconnect,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 331–332 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Bull, A. V. Andrianov, I. Harrison, and E. C. Larkins, “The study of strain and defects in high power laser diodes by spectroscopically resolved photoluminescence microscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 27(1-3), 469–473 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. W. Fang, B. R. Koch, R. Jones, E. Lively, Di Liang, Ying-Hao Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, “A Distributed Bragg Reflector Silicon Evanescent Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1667–1669 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Mezosi, M. J. Strain, S. Furst, Z. Wang, S. Yu, and M. Sorel, “Unidirectional Bistability in AlGaInAs Microring and Microdisk Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(2), 88–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Prabhu, A. Tsay, H. Zhanghua, and V. Vien, “Ultracompact SOI Microring Add/Drop Filter With Wide Bandwidth and Wide FSR,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 651–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

G. Franz, “Damage in III/V semiconductors caused by hard- and soft-etching plasmas,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19(3), 762–772 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Low-Temperature InP-to-Silicon Direct Wafer Bonding on the Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Substrate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(4), 1560–1568 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-T. Lim, J.-G. Choi, S. K. Noh, K.-C. Je, S.-Y. Yim, and S.-H. Park, “Nondestructive Photoacoustic Measurement of Doping Densities in Bulk GaAs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(12), 7888–7891 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. Boudjani, B. Sieber, F. Cleton, and A. Rudra, “Cl and EBIC analysis of a p+-InGaAs/n-InGaAs/n-InP/n+-InP heterostructure,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 42(1-3), 192–198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

H. Park, A. W. Fang, S. Kodama, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon evanescent laser fabricated with a silicon waveguide and III-V offset quantum wells,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9460–9464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, R. Jones, H. Park, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent race track laser and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2315–2322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y.-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4413–4419 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-microm radius,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4309–4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. N. Sysak, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6044–6052 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Song, Q. Fang, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Passive ring-assisted Mach-Zehnder interleaver on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8359–8365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. W. Poon, X. S. Luo, F. Xu, and H. Chen, “Cascaded Microresonator-Based Matrix Switch for Silicon On-Chip Optical Interconnection,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1216–1238 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, Y.-H. Kuo, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “An Optically-Pumped Silicon Evanescent Microring Resonator Laser,” in The 6th IEEE international conference on Group IV Photonics, 2009), paper FA5.

D. M. Taylor, and T. J. Shepherd, (personal communication, 2008).

www.zarlink.com, www.finisar.com, www.luxtera.com, www.emcore.com

L. A. Coldren, and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, New York, USA, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of compact hybrid silicon ring resonator laser with BPM mode profile and integrated, tapered photodetectors. Variables of coupling gap s and bus waveguide width wWG are labeled. (b) The microscopic image of a finished device with critical dimension labeled. (c) SEM cross-sectional image of the evanescent point coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of critical fabrication steps (not to scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LI characteristic of microring lasers with coupling gap (a) s=150 nm and (b) s=250 nm at various stage temperatures. (c) Threshold currents of different bus waveguide widths as a function of coupling gap width.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum measured at cw injection current of 16 mA (1.15×Ith) compared with photoluminescence result. (b) Spectra of primary lasing peak 16 to 30 mA cw current. Inset: LI curve measured from the photodetector on the left hand side. The color dots in the LI curve highlights the corresponding spectrum taken at the same current but with different laser emission direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical IV characteristics of a microring laser and one of its on-chip photodetectors. The length of exposed active region for laser and photodetector are shown in the inset. Blue and black present wet and dry etch defined interface.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic view of a CWDM optical cable based on the hybrid silicon platform

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated 3 dB bandwidth as a function of microring laser diameter (cavity length) for 10, 20 and 30 mA injection current. Black dot represents experimental 3 dB bandwidth of 2.5 GHz measured on a hybrid Si DBR laser without about 1.6 × Ith bias current [25].

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J=IL
Il=JlLl=JoLo+JiLi
Ip=JpLp
JoJi=IlLpLiIpLoIp

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