Abstract

We have studied the coherent intercavity coupling of the evanescent fields of two microdisk terahertz quantum-cascade lasers. The electrically controllable optical coupling of the single-mode operating lasers has been observed for cavity spacings up to 30 µm. The strongest coupled photonic molecule with 2 µm intercavity spacing allows to conditionally switch the optical emission by the electrical modulation of only one microdisk. The lasing threshold characteristics demonstrate the linear dependence of the gain of a quantum-cascade laser on the applied electric field.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  5. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
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  6. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. The Yee cell size was set to 1.4 mm and the average relative dielectric constant of the heterostructure was set to 11.75 based on the better fitting of the spectra with earlier single cavity simulations. The material small signal gain maximum for the active devices and the small signal loss maximum for the absorbing devices were set to 10.7 cm-1 and 107 cm-1 at 2.63 THz, respectively.
  21. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Nakagawa, S. Ishii, and T. Baba, "Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Tamošiūnas, Z. Kancleris, M. Dagysa, R. Simniskisa, M. Tamosiunienea, G. Valusisa, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Mid- and Far-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers," Act. Phys. Pol. A 107, 179-183 (2005).

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, A. M.

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

A. Nakagawa, S. Ishii, and T. Baba, "Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrelet, C. J.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benz, A.

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boland, J. J.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A. L.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connolly, T. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Detz, H.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, Ch.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dremin, A. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L. A.

Faist, J.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, L. A. Dunbar, G. Scalari, R. Houdre, and J. Faist, "Terahertz photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 16818-16827 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasching, G.

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutbrod, T.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

Hu, Q.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, S.

A. Nakagawa, S. Ishii, and T. Baba, "Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jimba, Y.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khanna, S. P.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klang, P.

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, P. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulakovskii, V. D.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, Ch. M.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahler, L.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcadet, X.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mujagic, E.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mukaiyama, T.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, A.

A. Nakagawa, S. Ishii, and T. Baba, "Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nobile, M.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nöckel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y. P.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, T.

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

Schrenk, W.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High- Power Directional Emission from Microlasers with Chaotic Resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Takeda, K.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, "Tight-Binding Photonic Molecule Modes of Resonant Bispheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623-4626 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Benz, Ch. Deutsch, G. Fasching, K. Unterrainer, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Active photonic crystal terahertz laser," Opt. Express 17, 941-946 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walther, Ch.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Zhang, H.

Zobl, R.

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Act. Phys. Pol. A (1)

V. Tamošiūnas, Z. Kancleris, M. Dagysa, R. Simniskisa, M. Tamosiunienea, G. Valusisa, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Mid- and Far-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers," Act. Phys. Pol. A 107, 179-183 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Nakagawa, S. Ishii, and T. Baba, "Photonic molecule laser composed of GaInAsP microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015-1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasching, A. Benz, K. Unterrainer, R. Zobl, A. M. Andrews, T. Roch,W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, "Terahertz microcavity quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Mujagic, Ch. Deutsch, H. Detz, P. Klang, M. Nobile, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, K. Unterrainer, and G. Strasser, "Vertically emitting terahertz quantum cascade ring lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 011120 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Resonant Tunneling in Quantum Cascade Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and Karl Unterrainer, "Phase-resolved measurements of stimulated emission in a laser," Nature 449, 698-701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli,W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, "Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions," Nature 457, 174-178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (2)

H. Park, C. J. Barrelet, Y. Wu, B. Tian, F. Qian, and Ch. M. Lieber, "A wavelength-selective photonic-crystal waveguide coupled to a nanowire light source," Nature Photon. 2, 622-626 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, Ch. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, "Vertically emitting microdisk lasers," Nature Photon. 3, 46-49 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, "Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582-2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Other (2)

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[CrossRef]

The Yee cell size was set to 1.4 mm and the average relative dielectric constant of the heterostructure was set to 11.75 based on the better fitting of the spectra with earlier single cavity simulations. The material small signal gain maximum for the active devices and the small signal loss maximum for the absorbing devices were set to 10.7 cm-1 and 107 cm-1 at 2.63 THz, respectively.

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Scanning electron micrograph image of double-metal microdisks forming an electrically tunable THz photonic molecule with a spacing of 12 µm (PM-12).

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Spatial field distributions of the z component of the electric field. (a–d) The sign of the real part of the amplitude is assigned to the absolute value of the amplitude in order to indicate the phase differences of the restricted symmetric and antisymmetric simulations in the case of a PM-2. The mode splitting between (SYM;y) and (ASYM;y) modes can be firmly attributed to the effective optical path difference, while the frequency difference between (x;SYM) and (x;ASYM) modes is small and might be substantially influenced by so-called “numerical dispersion”. (e,f) Full area simulations of a PM-20 and a PM-10 having only one active microdisk. In both molecules the lasing mode couples into the passive cavity.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

(a) The current density-applied field (J-F) characteristics of a single microdisk and several PMs at T=5 K. The applied field of the second microdisk of each PM is kept constant at (FON +FMAX )=2. The inset depicts a blow up showing a clear current enhancement for the PM-2 and the PM-30. (b) The current density-optical emitted power characteristics of a single microdisk and several PMs at T=5 K. The dashed horizontal line mark the lasing emission of the PM-6 and the PM-12 for J 1=0. The dashed vertical line mark the threshold current density JON of the single microdisk.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

The optical emitted power of four PMs as a function of the applied electric fields with decreasing intercavity coupling from (a) to (d) at T=5 K. The dashed horizontal and vertical lines labelled FON , FMAX , and FOFF , respectively, mark the applied electric fields at the lasing onset, the maximum lasing emission, and the end of the negative differential resistivity regime of an uncoupled microdisk.

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