Abstract

We reporton an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser oscillator stabilized to carrier-envelope-offset frequency zero, generating a pulse train with constant field profile for every pulse. Stabilization is realized using an extended self-referenced locking scheme enabling to lock the carrier-envelope-offset phase with less than 65 attosecond rms timing jitter. The stabilized system features a pulse repetition rate of 100MHz with pulses as short as 4.5 fs and 220mW average output power. With this laser system it was possible for the first time to demonstrate a spectral interference pattern of 1011 oscillator pulses in an out-of-loop f -to-2f -interferometer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  2. O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. H. M. Crespo, J. R. Birge, E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Y. Sander, A. Benedick, and F. X. Kärtner, “Nonintrusive phase stabilization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a prismless octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 833–835 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of high-energy self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. 31, 963–965 (2006).
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2009 (1)

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2006 (3)

C. Manzoni, C. Vozzi, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “Generation of high-energy self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference frequency generation followed by optical parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. 31, 963–965 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakajima and S. Watanabe, “Effects of the Carrier-Envelope Phase in the Multiphoton Ionization Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2160–2162 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030–1040 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, R. Ell, T. Schibli, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Ultrabroadband double-chirped mirror pairs for generation of octave spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882–885 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Adachi, S.

Angelow, G.

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Benedick, A.

Bhat, R. D. R.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Binhammer, T.

Birge, J.

Birge, J. R.

Burgdörfer, J.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Crespo, H. M.

Cundiff, S. T.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dombi, P.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Duan, L.

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ell, R.

Ergler, T.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Falcão-Filho, E. L.

Felinto, D.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gibbs, H. M.

Gimpel, H.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grebing, C.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Grebing, S. Koke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-referencing of optical frequency combs,” CLEO 2009, CTuK5 (2009).

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T.W.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harth, A.

Helbing, F. W.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030–1040 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishii, N.

Itatani, J.

Jirauschek, C.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

Kärtner, F. X.

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, J. W. Kim, R. Ell, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Morgner, “Controlled waveforms on the single-cycle scale from a femtosecond oscillator,” Opt. Express 16, 9739–9745 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Crespo, J. R. Birge, E. L. Falcão-Filho, M. Y. Sander, A. Benedick, and F. X. Kärtner, “Nonintrusive phase stabilization of sub-two-cycle pulses from a prismless octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 833–835 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, L. Duan, O. D. Mücke, F. X. Kärtner, M. Wegener, and U. Morgner, “Carrier-envelope phasesensitive inversion in two-level systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2065–2075 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Mücke, R. Ell, A. Winter, J-W. Kim, J. Birge, L. Matos, and F. X. Kärtner, “Self-Referenced 200 MHz Octave-Spanning Ti:Sapphire Laser with 50 Attosecond Carrier-Envelope Phase Phase Jitter,” Opt. Express 13, 5163–5169 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2160–2162 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, “Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO,” Opt. Lett. 27, 2127–2129 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner, U. Morgner, R. Ell, T. Schibli, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Ultrabroadband double-chirped mirror pairs for generation of octave spectra,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 882–885 (2001).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030–1040 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Khitrova, G.

Kim, J. W.

Kim, J-W.

Kobayashi, Y.

Koke, S.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Grebing, S. Koke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-referencing of optical frequency combs,” CLEO 2009, CTuK5 (2009).

Kosuge, A.

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kre, M.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lawall, J. R.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

Lemell, Ch.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Löffler, T.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Manschwetus, B.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manzoni, C.

Marian, A.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matos, L.

Morgner, U.

Moshammer, R.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mücke, O.

Mücke, O. D.

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima and S. Watanabe, “Effects of the Carrier-Envelope Phase in the Multiphoton Ionization Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

Nisoli, M.

Paulus, G. G.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pipis, J. A.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rausch, S.

Roos, P. A.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rudd, J. V.

Sander, M. Y.

Sansone, G.

Scheuer, V.

Schibli, T.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

Son, J.

Stagira, S.

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030–1040 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Grebing, S. Koke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-referencing of optical frequency combs,” CLEO 2009, CTuK5 (2009).

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stowe, M. C.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, J. H.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Torizuka, K.

S. Adachi, N. Ishii, T. Kanai, A. Kosuge, J. Itatani, Y. Kobayashi, D. Yoshitomi, K. Torizuka, and S. Watanabe, “5-fs, multi-mJ, CEP-locked parametric chirped-pulse amplifier pumped by a 450-nm source at 1 kHz,” Opt. Express 16, 14341–14352 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tritschler, T.

Tschudi, T.

Udem, Th.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

Walther, H.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Wegener, M.

Whitaker, J. F.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winter, A.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshitomi, D.

Yu, T. J.

Zrost, K.

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Grebing, S. Koke, B. Manschwetus, and G. Steinmeyer, “Performance comparison of interferometer topologies for carrier-envelope phase detection,” Appl. Phys. B 95, 81–84 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase-locking with attosecond timing jitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1030–1040 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

P. A. Roos, X. Li, J. A. Pipis, T. M. Fortier, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, “Characterization of carrier-envelope phase-sensitive photocurrent injection in a semiconductor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 362–368 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Kre, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. Nakajima and S. Watanabe, “Effects of the Carrier-Envelope Phase in the Multiphoton Ionization Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 213001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T.W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Observation of Light-Phase-Sensitive Photoemission from a Metal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, J. R. Lawall, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “United Time-Frequency Spectroscopy for Dynamics and Global Structure,” Science 306, 2063–2068 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Grebing, S. Koke, and G. Steinmeyer, “Self-referencing of optical frequency combs,” CLEO 2009, CTuK5 (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Oscillator output characteristics: A) Octave-spanning output spectrum shown on a logarithmic (left, red) and linear scale (right, blue). The dotted logarithmic spectrum illustrates the full oscillator spectrum, whereas the solid one gives the spectrum remaining for experiments after CEP stabilization. B) SPIDER-characterized CEP-stabilized pulse with a duration of 4.5 fs (FWHM).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Locking fCE to zero; Left: Extended f-to-2f interferometer setup - AOFS: acousto-optic frequency shifter; APD: avalanche photo diode; DBS: dichroic beam splitter, F: interference filter, L: focusing lens, M: mirror, MCF: multichroic filter, QWP: quarter wave plate, X: SHG crystal; Right: RF-locking-scheme - the locking reference fRef is generated by mixing the AOFS driving frequency fAOFS =80MHz with the lasers’ repetetion rate frep =100MHz down to 20 MHz. fCE -locking is accomplished by a PLL controlling the lasers’ pump power; AMP: amplifier, BP: bandpass filter, LP: lowpass filter, LPF: loop filter, PD: phase detector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In-loop characteristics; A) Stabilized fCEm beat note at 20MHz shown in a 100 Hz span with 1Hz resolution bandwidth featuring a SNR greater than 60 dB; B) Noise PSD of CEP fluctuations (red), the locking reference (green), and measurement noise floor (blue) next to the integrated rms phase error for the CEP fluctuations (grey, right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Out-of-loop characterization; Left: Experimental setup - the laser output is split and launched into the main f-to-2f interferometer from Fig. 2 for zero locking, and a second f-to-2f -interferometer for out-of-loop characterization; BS: beam splitter, NF: neutral density filter; Right: Noise PSD of the out-of-loop frep fluctuations with locked-to-zero CE frequency for different locking settings (gain 4: red, gain 7: blue).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Out-of-loop interference of the f and 2f components of the stabilized pulse train. The interference is recorded over 2500 seconds with a spectrometer integration time of 0.5 seconds.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

CEP interference pattern while shifting the absolute phase with a BaF2 glass wedge; Top: Out-of-loop spectral interference pattern - starting at approx. 47 s the absolute phase is shifted by steadily inserting BaF2 into the beam. At 65 s the phase has slipped by about 2π; Middle: Extracted phase; Bottom: Electric field profile of the center parts of the underlying pulses at three different times t 1, t 2 and t 3 with assumed CEP=0 as starting point. At t 4 the lock is switched off.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

fCEm=fCE±fAOFS.
στ=12π·f0.Δϕ=12π·f0.[23Hz3MHzsϕ(f)df]1/2

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