Abstract

We have demonstrated balanced coherent detection using distributed balanced traveling-wave photodetectors integrated with single mode polymer optical waveguides. Balanced distributed traveling-wave photodetectors having 3 dB bandwidth of 20 GHz exhibited 20 dB signal to noise ratio improvement measured at 15 GHz modulation frequency in a balanced coherent detection demonstration.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Agrawal, Fiber optic communication systems 3rd Ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002), Chap. 10.
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, G. L.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agashe, A.

S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agashe, S. S.

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, C. A.

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Callender, C. L.

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chau, T.

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crepso, P.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elrefaie, A. F.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gimlett, J.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gouin, F.

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henzi, P.

D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. S.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W.

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. B.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kanakaraju, S.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. K.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, S.

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, J.

D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noad, J. P.

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nurthy, S.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D. G.

D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robitaille, L.

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Safwat, A. M.

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walker, B.

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, B.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welter, R.

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. G. Kazovsky, A. F. Elrefaie, R. Welter, P. Crepso, J. Gimlett, and R. W. Smith, "Impact of laser intensity noise on ASK two-port optical homodyne receivers," Electron. Lett. 23, 871-873 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

S. S. Agashe, S. Datta, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, "A monolithically integrated long-wavelength balanced photodiode using asymmetric twin-waveguide technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 236-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Datta, A. Agashe, and S. R. Forrest, "A high bandwidth analog heterodyne RF optical link with high dynamic range and low noise figure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1733-1735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Rabus, P. Henzi, and J. Mohr, "Photonic integrated circuits by DUV-induced modification of polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 591-593 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Howley, Y. Chen, X. Wang, Q. Zhou, Z. Shi, Y. Jiang, and T. Chen, "2-bit reconfigurable true time delay lines using 2×2 polymer waveguide switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1944-1946 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, L. Lin, C. Choi, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, "Optoelectronic Integration of polymer waveguide array and metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector through micromirror couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 355-357 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

J. Kim, W. B. Johnson, S. Kanakaraju, W. Cao, W. N. Herman and C. H. Lee, "Design and Fabrication of Monolithic Distributed Traveling-Wave Photodetectors Integrated With Polymer Optical Waveguides," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 54, 3216-3222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

M. S. Islam, T. Chau, S. Mathai, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Distrubuted balanced photodetectors for broad-band noise suppression," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1282-1288 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Islam, S. Nurthy, T. Itoh, M. C. Wu, D. Novak, B. Waterhouse, D. L. Sivco, and A. Cho, "Velocity-matched distributed photodetectors and balanced photodetectors with p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1914-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "A dual-detector optical heterodyne receiver for local oscillator noise suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110-1122 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Callender, L. Robitaille, J. P. Noad, F. Gouin, and C. A. Almeida, "Optical signal distribution to MSM photodetector array via integrated polyimide waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1700-1707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. M. Safwat, J. Kim, W. Johnson, B. Walker, and C. H. Lee, "1.55 mm surface-illuminated nonlithically integrated balanced metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors and coplanar waveguide," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 34, 125-130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Agrawal, Fiber optic communication systems 3rd Ed. (Wiley, New York, 2002), Chap. 10.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of (a) balanced detection, and (b) distributed balanced TWPDs integrated with BCB optical waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency responses of distributed traveling-wave photodetectors at 7 V bias. Each MSM has 0.5 µm finger electrode widths and spacings. (a) both channels of 5 MSM PDs and (b) 8 MSM PDs. Dots indicate measured data and the solid lines are fitted lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurement set up for balanced detection.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Signal enhancement in balanced detection. Spectra measured at a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz, and video bandwidth of 300 Hz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Signal output power gain dependence on LO power at 15 GHz. Square dots indicate measured data and the dotted line is ideal linear response.

Equations (5)

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Iph,1=12R(Ps+PLO+2PsPLOcos[(ωsωLO)t+φsφLOπ2],
Iph,2=12R(Ps+PLO+2PsPLOcos[(ωsωLO)t+φsφLO+π2],
Iph=Iph,1Iph,2=2R PsPLO cos[(ωsωLO)t+φsφLO].
Iph=Iph,1Iph,2=2R PsPLO cos (φsφLO) .
SNR=2R2PsPLOσs2+σT2+σI2=2R2PsPLO2q(I+Id)Δf+(4kBTRL)FnΔf+2R2PLO2(RIN)Δf,

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