Abstract

A high-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort fiber laser was demonstrated using a polyimide film dispersed with single-wall carbon nanotubes. A variable output coupler and wavelength filter were used in the cavity configuration, and high-power operation was demonstrated. The maximum average power was 12.6 mW and pulse energy was 585 pJ for stable single-pulse operation with an output coupling ratio as high as 98.3%. Wide wavelength-tunable operation at 1532–1562 nm was also demonstrated by controlling the wavelength filter. The RF amplitude noise characteristics were examined in terms of their dependence on output coupling ratio and oscillation wavelength.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Masuda, S. Niki, and M. Nakazawa, “Environmentally stable, simple passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a four-port circulator,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6613–6622 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (7)

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, B.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M.

Bennion, I.

Brown, D. P.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chernov, A. I.

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Doerr, C. R.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goh, C. S.

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Haus, H. A.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirooka, T.

Hohmuth, R.

Hsiung, P.

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Jablonski, M.

Kaino, T.

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kieu, K.

Kivistö, S.

Komatsu, K.

Konov, V. I.

Limpert, J.

Lobach, A. S.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez, A.

Maruyama, S.

Masuda, S.

Mata, J.

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakami, Y.

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Namiki, S.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nielsen, C. K.

Niki, S.

Nishizawa, N.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Ortaç, B.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richter, W.

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Seno, Y.

Set, S. Y.

Shirato, T.

Shohda, F.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, K.

Sun, Z.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tausenev, A. V.

Tokumoto, M.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortaç, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-starting self-similar all-polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9346–9351 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Masuda, S. Niki, and M. Nakazawa, “Environmentally stable, simple passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a four-port circulator,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6613–6622 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, “Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 µm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 915–917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004).
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Other (4)

S. Y. Set, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, “Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide”, Proceedings of ECOC’05, 1, 37 (2005).

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThG1.

M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast fiber oscillators”, in Ultrafast Lasers, M. E. Fermann, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap. 3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration of all-PM, passively mode-locked, Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser with SWNT polyimide film. WDM, wavelength-division-multiplexed coupler; EDF, Er-doped fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum of SWNT-polyimide film. The SWNTs were synthesized by the LA method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power and operating mode of the laser as a function of pump power when the output coupling ratio was 85%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of output pulses from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 85%, showing optical spectra on (a) linear and (b) log scales, (c) temporal pulse shape and instantaneous wavelength, and (d) pulse train.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of maximum output power, power inside the cavity, and the temporal width of the output pulses as a function of output coupling ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical spectrum of output pulse when the maximum output power was obtained. Wavelength filters with bandwidths of 30 and 13 nm were used. (b) Temporal shape of the laser output.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) RF noise spectra of output pulse from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 98%, and (b) variation of averaged RF noise as a function of output coupling ratio.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of optical spectra of output pulses for wavelength-tunable operation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power and optical spectrum width when the center wavelength was varied.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of magnitude of RF noise as a function of wavelength. Several output coupling ratios were examined.

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