Abstract

We present an iterative technique for improving adaptive optics (AO) wavefront correction for retinal imaging, called the Adaptive-Influence-Matrix (AIM) method. This method is based on the fact that the deflection-to-voltage relation of common deformable mirrors used in AO are nonlinear, and the fact that in general the wavefront errors of the eye can be considered to be composed of a static, non-zero wavefront error (such as the defocus and astigmatism), and a time-varying wavefront error. The aberrated wavefront is first corrected with a generic influence matrix, providing a mirror compensation figure for the static wavefront error. Then a new influence matrix that is more accurate for the specific static wavefront error is calibrated based on the mirror compensation figure. Experimental results show that with the AIM method the AO wavefront correction accuracy can be improved significantly in comparison to the generic AO correction. The AIM method is most useful in AO modalities where there are large static contributions to the wavefront aberrations.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. W. Babcock, “Adaptive Optics Revisited,” Science 249(4966), 253–257 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Devaney, E. Dalimier, T. Farrell, D. Coburn, R. Mackey, D. Mackey, F. Laurent, E. Daly, and C. Dainty, “Correction of ocular and atmospheric wavefronts: a comparison of the performance of various deformable mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 47(35), 6550–6562 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405 .
    [PubMed]
  5. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4792 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4552 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12746 .
    [PubMed]
  15. H. Song, Y. Zhao, X. Qi, Y. T. Chui, and S. A. Burns, “Stokes vector analysis of adaptive optics images of the retina,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 137–139 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, “Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye,” Opt. Lett. 27(17), 1537–1539 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7144–7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3345 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, “Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1313–1326 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed., (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001) p.528.
  23. D. C. Chen, S. M. Jones, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1305–1312 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Oliver, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1373–1383 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Zou, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “Wavefront-aberration sorting and correction for a dual-deformable-mirror adaptive-optics system,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2602–2604 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. http://www.imagine-eyes.com/content/view/45/103/ .
  27. Specifications of product Model No. µDM140–450-E-AgMgF, SN: 09w200#108–450D16–9, Boston MicroMachines Corporation (2007).
  28. J. B. Stewart, A. Diouf, Y. Zhou, and T. G. Bifano, “Open-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror for large-amplitude wavefront control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(12), 3827–3833 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 14(20), 8900–8917 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-8900 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. Y. Zhou, “A confocal microscope using adaptive optics,” Master thesis, Boston University, 2005.
  32. Y. Zhou and T. Bifano, “Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 123–130 (2006).
  33. J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5558 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Improve adaptive optics wavefront control accuracy for retinal imaging with dual-influence-matrix method,” in 2009 ARVO Annual meeting, Poster D960, Program NO. 1052, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May 3–7 (2009).
  35. V. N. Mahajan, “Strehl ratio for primary aberrations in terms of their aberration variance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73(6), 860–861 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 497–506 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  37. N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Salmon and L. Thibos, “Videokeratoscope-line-of-sight misalignment and its effect on measurements of corneal and internal ocular aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 657–669 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (9)

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 14(20), 8900–8917 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-8900 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhou and T. Bifano, “Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 123–130 (2006).

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5558 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4552 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7144–7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3345 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, “MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1268–1270 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4792 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. W. Babcock, “Adaptive Optics Revisited,” Science 249(4966), 253–257 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Ahamd, K.

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aragon, J. L.

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, B. Singer, J. L. Aragon, and D. R. Williams, “Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 497–506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, H. W.

H. W. Babcock, “Adaptive Optics Revisited,” Science 249(4966), 253–257 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bierden, P.

Bifano, T.

Y. Zhou and T. Bifano, “Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 123–130 (2006).

Bifano, T. G.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Chen, L.

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Chui, Y. T.

Coburn, D.

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Daly, E.

Davies, N.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaney, N.

Diaz-Santana, L.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, D.

Diouf, A.

Doble, N.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

Elsner, A. E.

Evans, J. W.

Farrell, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, D.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernandez, E. J.

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

Gee, B. P.

Gray, D. C.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R.

Jonnal, R. S.

Lara-Saucedo, D.

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurent, F.

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macintosh, B.

Mackey, D.

Mackey, R.

Mahajan, V. N.

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W.

Merino, D.

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. T.

Morzinski, K.

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, S. S.

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Petrig, B. L.

Podoleanu, A. G.

Poonja, S.

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 14(20), 8900–8917 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-8900 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poyneer, L.

Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

Qu, J.

Queener, H.

Reinholz, F.

Reza, L.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, T.

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, E. J. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Adaptive-optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2142–2144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Severson, S.

Silva, D. A.

Singer, B.

Song, H.

Stewart, J. B.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L.

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thorn, K. E.

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

Ustun, T. E.

Vabre, L.

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Wolfing, J. I.

Yoon, G.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zhao, Y.

Zhong, Z.

Zhou, Y.

J. B. Stewart, A. Diouf, Y. Zhou, and T. G. Bifano, “Open-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror for large-amplitude wavefront control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(12), 3827–3833 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou and T. Bifano, “Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 123–130 (2006).

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. (1)

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack-Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. Astron.Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, “Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity,” Ophthalmology 112(12), 2219–2224 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12746 .
[PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7144–7158 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7144 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3345 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4792 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405 .
[PubMed]

E. J. Fernandez, L. Vabre, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics with a magnetic deformable mirror: applications in the human eye,” Opt. Express 14(20), 8900–8917 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-8900 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, and L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5558 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4552 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

N. Davies, L. Diaz-Santana, and D. Lara-Saucedo, “Repeatability of ocular wavefront measurement,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 80(2), 142–150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou and T. Bifano, “Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 6113, 123–130 (2006).

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Babcock, “Adaptive Optics Revisited,” Science 249(4966), 253–257 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

E. J. Fernández, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

W. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Improve adaptive optics wavefront control accuracy for retinal imaging with dual-influence-matrix method,” in 2009 ARVO Annual meeting, Poster D960, Program NO. 1052, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, May 3–7 (2009).

Y. Zhou, “A confocal microscope using adaptive optics,” Master thesis, Boston University, 2005.

http://www.imagine-eyes.com/content/view/45/103/ .

Specifications of product Model No. µDM140–450-E-AgMgF, SN: 09w200#108–450D16–9, Boston MicroMachines Corporation (2007).

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed., (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001) p.528.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the Woofer-Tweeter adaptive optics Testbed system

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

D-V relations of the actuators of the Mirao DM. The response was systematic, with the central actuators having the largest deflections, and the highest degree of nonlinearity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence functions of (a) a central actuator (No. 22) and (b) an edge actuator (No. 44) of the Mirao DM. For these measurements all other actuators were held at zero volts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of slopes of the influence function as a function of wavefront defocus for the Mirao DM

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

D-V relations of the Mirao-DM central actuator (No. 22) at the variations of its neighboring actuators. Each curve represents the D-V relation of that actuator at different set of voltages applied to its four neighboring actuators.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

D-V relations of the actuators located in the 1st quarter of the BMC DM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flow chart of influence matrix calibration with the AIM method

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of wavefront error reductions of the Generic AO and the DIM AO

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Wavefront error reduction during AO control loops for the AIM method. Most of the improved convergence rate occurs after the first step in wavefront error reduction. (b) Bartlett multiple-sample test for equal variances: Box and whisker plots for the final 45 iterations of each AIM Loop in sequence.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f1(v)=2.5457v45.7316v32.9065v2+25.572v+0.0697,  (R2=1)
f2(v)=2.0×108v3+4.15×105v21.42×103v+0.039,  (R2=0.9995)
[XY]=[ATA+λ1βATBβBTAβ2BTB+λ2]1[ATβBT]S,

Metrics