Abstract

We present the development of a platform for label-free biosensing based on overlayered Long Period Gratings (LPGs) working in transition mode. Nano-scale layers of Polystyrene (PS) with different thicknesses were deposited onto the same LPG to test the performances of the device in different working points of its modified sensitivity characteristic. Adsorption dynamic of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BBSA) onto the PS overlays was on-line monitored as well as a subsequent streptavidin (SA) binding dynamic on the biotinylated sites of the protein ad-layer. Experimental results show that overlayered LPGs are among the most sensitive refractive index transducers to be employed in label-free biochemical detection and that wide margins of further optimization exist.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Reimhult, K. Petersson, and A. Krozer, “QCM-D analysis of the performance of blocking agents on gold and polystyrene surfaces,” Langmuir 24(16), 8695–8700 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, P. Foglia Manzillo, M. Giordano, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and A. Cusano, “Spectral behavior of thin film coated cascaded tapered long period gratings in multiple configurations,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9765–9780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings,” Opt. Express 14(1), 19–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, and O. Bang, “Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8224–8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matías, and F. J. Arregui, “Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 720–722 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tsargorodskaya, A. V. Nabok, and A. K. Ray, “Ellipsometric study of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin into porous silicon,” Nanotechnology 15(5), 703–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Turkova, “Oriented immobilization of biologically active proteins as a tool for revealing protein interactions and function,” J. Chromatogr. Biomed. Sci. Applic. 722(1-2), 11–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Sagvolden, I. Giaever, and J. Feder, “Characteristic protein adhesion forces on glass and polystyrene substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 14(21), 5984–5987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Vasiliev, E. M. Dianov, D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, “Postfabrication resonance peak positioning of long-period cladding-mode-coupled gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1830–1832 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

D. Piscevic, W. Knoll, and M. J. Tarlov, “Surface plasmon microscopy of biotin-streptavidin binding reactions on UV-photopatterned alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Supramol. Science 2(2), 99–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. S. Hage, “Immunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 65(12), 420R–424R (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. D. Peterson, S. D. Miller, and C. Waltenbaugh, “Rapid biotin-avidin method for quantitation of antiviral antibody isotypes,” J. Virol. Methods 27(2), 189–201 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

S. Lee and E. Ruckenstein, “Adsorption of proteins onto polymeric surfaces of different hydrophilicities-a case study with bovine serum albumin,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 125(2), 365–379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Bayer and M. Wilchek, “The Avidin-Biotin Complex in Bioanalytical Applications,” Anal. Chem. 171, 1–32 (1988).

L. E. Scriven, “Physics And Applications of Dip Coating And Spin Coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, M.

Ahluwalia, A.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, M.

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, S.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arregui, F.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

Bang, O.

Bayer, E. A.

E. A. Bayer and M. Wilchek, “The Avidin-Biotin Complex in Bioanalytical Applications,” Anal. Chem. 171, 1–32 (1988).

Bennion, I.

Bentley, W. E.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings,” Opt. Express 14(1), 19–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Contessa, L.

Cooper, K. L.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, M.

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings,” Opt. Express 14(1), 19–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dahman, Y.

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, E.

Davies, J.

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, M. C.

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawkes, A. C.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Rossi, D.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Dufva, M.

Edwards, J. C.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, J. L.

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falate, R.

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falciai, R.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feder, J.

G. Sagvolden, I. Giaever, and J. Feder, “Characteristic protein adhesion forces on glass and polystyrene substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 14(21), 5984–5987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foglia Manzillo, P.

Ghalmi, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giaever, I.

G. Sagvolden, I. Giaever, and J. Feder, “Characteristic protein adhesion forces on glass and polystyrene substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 14(21), 5984–5987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

Green, R. J.

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hage, D. S.

D. S. Hage, “Immunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 65(12), 420R–424R (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, W. A.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hine, A.

Høiby, P. E.

Hughes, M.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings,” Opt. Express 14(1), 19–34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kalinowski, H. J.

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kamikawachi, R. C.

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keener, M. T.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

D. Piscevic, W. Knoll, and M. J. Tarlov, “Surface plasmon microscopy of biotin-streptavidin binding reactions on UV-photopatterned alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Supramol. Science 2(2), 99–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kobatake, E.

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

Krozer, A.

K. Reimhult, K. Petersson, and A. Krozer, “QCM-D analysis of the performance of blocking agents on gold and polystyrene surfaces,” Langmuir 24(16), 8695–8700 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

Lee, S.

S. Lee and E. Ruckenstein, “Adsorption of proteins onto polymeric surfaces of different hydrophilicities-a case study with bovine serum albumin,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 125(2), 365–379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. C.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

Margaritis, A.

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matías, I.

Matías, I. R.

Merritt, E. A.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mignani, A. G.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. D.

J. D. Peterson, S. D. Miller, and C. Waltenbaugh, “Rapid biotin-avidin method for quantitation of antiviral antibody isotypes,” J. Virol. Methods 27(2), 189–201 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, and J. L. Fabris, “Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 105(2), 430–436 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nabok, A. V.

A. Tsargorodskaya, A. V. Nabok, and A. K. Ray, “Ellipsometric study of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin into porous silicon,” Nanotechnology 15(5), 703–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pähler, A.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, M. C.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peterson, J. D.

J. D. Peterson, S. D. Miller, and C. Waltenbaugh, “Rapid biotin-avidin method for quantitation of antiviral antibody isotypes,” J. Virol. Methods 27(2), 189–201 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersson, K.

K. Reimhult, K. Petersson, and A. Krozer, “QCM-D analysis of the performance of blocking agents on gold and polystyrene surfaces,” Langmuir 24(16), 8695–8700 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phizackerley, R. P.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickrell, G. R.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilla, P.

Piscevic, D.

D. Piscevic, W. Knoll, and M. J. Tarlov, “Surface plasmon microscopy of biotin-streptavidin binding reactions on UV-photopatterned alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Supramol. Science 2(2), 99–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Puskas, J. E.

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ray, A. K.

A. Tsargorodskaya, A. V. Nabok, and A. K. Ray, “Ellipsometric study of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin into porous silicon,” Nanotechnology 15(5), 703–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rees, N. D.

Reimhult, K.

K. Reimhult, K. Petersson, and A. Krozer, “QCM-D analysis of the performance of blocking agents on gold and polystyrene surfaces,” Langmuir 24(16), 8695–8700 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rindorf, L.

Ristori, C.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C. J.

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckenstein, E.

S. Lee and E. Ruckenstein, “Adsorption of proteins onto polymeric surfaces of different hydrophilicities-a case study with bovine serum albumin,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 125(2), 365–379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sagvolden, G.

G. Sagvolden, I. Giaever, and J. Feder, “Characteristic protein adhesion forces on glass and polystyrene substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Langmuir 14(21), 5984–5987 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Satow, Y.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirone, A.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, “Physics And Applications of Dip Coating And Spin Coating,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 121, 717–729 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sefton, J.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seong, G. H.

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serra, G.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shibru, H.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. L.

W. A. Hendrickson, A. Pähler, J. L. Smith, Y. Satow, E. A. Merritt, and R. P. Phizackerley, “Crystal structure of core streptavidin determined from multiwavelength anomalous diffraction of synchrotron radiation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86(7), 2190–2194 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarlov, M. J.

D. Piscevic, W. Knoll, and M. J. Tarlov, “Surface plasmon microscopy of biotin-streptavidin binding reactions on UV-photopatterned alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” Supramol. Science 2(2), 99–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, “Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14(5), R49–R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, “Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 686–688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tendler, S. J. B.

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokachichu, D. R.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsargorodskaya, A.

A. Tsargorodskaya, A. V. Nabok, and A. K. Ray, “Ellipsometric study of the adsorption of bovine serum albumin into porous silicon,” Nanotechnology 15(5), 703–709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turkova, J.

J. Turkova, “Oriented immobilization of biologically active proteins as a tool for revealing protein interactions and function,” J. Chromatogr. Biomed. Sci. Applic. 722(1-2), 11–31 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Cott, K.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vannini, A.

R. Falciai, A. G. Mignani, and A. Vannini, “Long period gratings as solution concentration sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 74–77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Varelas, D.

Vasiliev, S. A.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waltenbaugh, C.

J. D. Peterson, S. D. Miller, and C. Waltenbaugh, “Rapid biotin-avidin method for quantitation of antiviral antibody isotypes,” J. Virol. Methods 27(2), 189–201 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, K. Van Cott, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, and S. Ghalmi, “Biosensors employing ionic self-assembled multilayers adsorbed on long-period fiber gratings,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 139(2), 618–623 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilchek, M.

E. A. Bayer and M. Wilchek, “The Avidin-Biotin Complex in Bioanalytical Applications,” Anal. Chem. 171, 1–32 (1988).

Williams, P. M.

S. Allen, J. Davies, A. C. Dawkes, M. C. Davies, J. C. Edwards, M. C. Parker, C. J. Roberts, J. Sefton, S. J. B. Tendler, and P. M. Williams, “In situ observation of streptavidin-biotin binding on an immunoassay well surface using an atomic force microscope,” FEBS Lett. 390(2), 161–164 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagida, Y.

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

H. Shibru, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, “Optimization of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly processing parameters for optical biosensing,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 024401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Biomater.

B. Bhushan, D. R. Tokachichu, M. T. Keener, and S. C. Lee, “Morphology and adhesion of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces,” Acta Biomater. 1(3), 327–341 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

G. H. Seong, Y. Yanagida, M. Aizawa, and E. Kobatake, “Atomic force microscopy identification of transcription factor NFkappaB bound to streptavidin-pin-holding DNA probe,” Anal. Biochem. 309(2), 241–247 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

E. A. Bayer and M. Wilchek, “The Avidin-Biotin Complex in Bioanalytical Applications,” Anal. Chem. 171, 1–32 (1988).

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, “Evanescent wave long-period fiber bragg grating as an immobilized antibody biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 72(13), 2895–2900 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Hage, “Immunoassays,” Anal. Chem. 65(12), 420R–424R (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and S. Campopiano, “Sensitivity characteristics in nanosized coated long period gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biomacromolecules

J. E. Puskas, Y. Dahman, A. Margaritis, and M. Cunningham, “Novel thymine-functionalized polystyrenes for applications in biotechnology. 2. Adsorption of model proteins,” Biomacromolecules 5(4), 1412–1421 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomaterials

R. J. Green, J. Davies, M. C. Davies, C. J. Roberts, and S. J. B. Tendler, “Surface plasmon resonance for real time in situ analysis of protein adsorption to polymer surfaces,” Biomaterials 18(5), 405–413 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

A. Ahluwalia, D. De Rossi, C. Ristori, A. Schirone, and G. Serra, “A comparative study of protein immobilisation techniques for optical immunosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 7(3), 207–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, “Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating,” Electron. Lett. 42(6), 324–325 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pictorial description of mode coupling in LPGs and spectral dependence on SRI (not to scale): a) spectrum of incoming white light; b) spectrum of transmitted light at the output of the bare LPG, also showing the shift of the attenuation bands for increasing SRI; c) LPG structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental set-up.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Effect of the overlay deposition on the fourth order cladding mode attenuation band; spectral characterization to SRI changes for the fourth (b) and fifth (c) cladding modes with an overlay thickness of 320 nm; d) SRI characterization in terms of attenuation bands minima position for the fourth and fifth cladding modes and for three overlay thicknesses; sensitivity (| ∂λres/∂SRI|) of the fourth (e) and fifth (f) cladding modes for three overlay thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral position of the fourth order cladding mode attenuation band for the bare device in air, with an overlay thickness of 320 nm in water and of the fifth order cladding mode with an overlay thickness of 370 nm in water.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of the overlayered LPG with polymeric coating, biotinylated BSA ad-layer and binding SA (not to scale).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Time plot of BBSA adsorption and SA binding by monitoring the fourth order cladding mode of the LPG coated with a 320 nm PS overlay; b) time plot of BBSA adsorption and SA binding by monitoring the fifth order cladding mode of the LPG coated with a 370 nm PS overlay.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Topography image of (a) a PS coated optical fiber; b) PS coated optical fiber after PBS for 2 hours; c) optical fiber overlayered with adsorbed BBSA and bound SA; d) phase image related to the topography shown in c).

Equations (1)

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λres,0i=(neff,coneff,cl0i)Λ

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