Abstract

In this paper, a novel direct writing technique using submicron-diameter fibers is presented. The submicron-diameter fiber probe serves as a tightly confined point source and it adopts micro touch mode in the process of writing. The energy distribution of direct writing model is analyzed by Three-Dimension Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. Experiments demonstrate that submicron-diameter fiber direct writing has some advantages: simple process, 350-nm-resolution (lower than 442-nm-wavelength), large writing area, and controllable width of lines. In addition, by altering writing direction of lines, complex submicron patterns can be fabricated.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261107 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/261107/1 .
[CrossRef]

H. F. Yang, M. Zhou, J. Dai, J. K. Di, and E. L. Zhao, “Performance testing of log pile photonic crystal fast-fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 864–867 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/col/abstract.cfm?URI=col-6-11-864 .
[CrossRef]

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, K. Sakaguchi, and I. C. Carvalho, “Low loss photonic components in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16215–16226 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-16215 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wu, W. Q. Huang, and L. L. Wang, “Propagation characteristics of the silica and silicon subwavelength-diameter hollow wire waveguides,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 6, 732–735 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/col/abstract.cfm?URI=col-6-10-732 .
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-4-303 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/143513/1 .
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/161108/1 .
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/151122/1 .
[CrossRef]

S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison with other existing methods of fabrication,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(2), 354–361 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-22-2-354 .
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, “Two-photon laser precision microfabrication and its applications to micro-nano devices and systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(3), 624–633 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/JLT/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-21-3-624 .
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3859–3861 (1995), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/67/3859/1 .
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

Anderegg, J. W.

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X.

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261107 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/261107/1 .
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

Birnbaum, D.

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Carvalho, I. C.

Chang, W. S. C.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

X. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-12-1710 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. C.

Corbari, C.

Dai, J.

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3859–3861 (1995), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/67/3859/1 .
[CrossRef]

Di, J. K.

Doumuki, T.

Dulashko, Y.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/161108/1 .
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/161108/1 .
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, P.

Hale, A.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/161108/1 .
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L. L.

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/143513/1 .
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. Q.

Huang, Y. Y.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/151122/1 .
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

Jiang, X. S.

X. S. Jiang, Y. Chen, G. Vienne, and L. M. Tong, “All-fiber add-drop filters based on microfiber knot resonators,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1710–1712 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-12-1710 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/143513/1 .
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

Koechlin, M.

Kopelman, R.

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koudriachov, V.

Langseth, J.

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/151122/1 .
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and X. Bao, “The observation of comblike transmission spectrum from a tapered single mode fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(26), 261107 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/261107/1 .
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

Y. H. Li and L. M. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-4-303 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Jiang, Q. Yang, G. Vienne, Y. H. Li, L. M. Tong, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Demonstration of microfiber knot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 143513 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/143513/1 .
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y. Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Yariv, “Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151122 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/151122/1 .
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-6-1025 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, S.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-6-1025 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3859–3861 (1995), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/67/3859/1 .
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

Poulsen, C. V.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

Sakaguchi, K.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/abs/nature02193.html .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Z. Y.

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinar, J.

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

Slattery, S. A.

Smith, S.

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field direct-write ultraviolet lithography and shear force microscopic studies of the lithographic process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3859–3861 (1995), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/67/3859/1 .
[CrossRef]

Sopori, B. L.

Sumetsky, M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/86/161108/1 .
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Svalgaard, M.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, “Direct UV writing of buried singlemode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,” Electron. Lett. 30(17), 1401–1403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, H.

Tan, W.

W. Tan, Z. Y. Shi, S. Smith, D. Birnbaum, and R. Kopelman, “Submicrometer intracellular chemical optical fiber sensors,” Science 258(5083), 778–781 (1992), http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/258/5083/778 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapalian, H. C.

H. C. Tapalian, J. Langseth, Y. Chen, J. W. Anderegg, and J. Shinar, “Ultrafast laser direct-write actuable microstructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243304 (2008), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/93/243304/1 .
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

Vienne, G.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the direct writing using submicron-diameter fiber. Micro touch exposure is adopted during submicron-diameter fiber scanning on the photoresist layer. (b) Optical microscope image of a fiber probe for direct writing fabricated by two-step process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Index model of direct writing in x = 0 plane for FDTD simulation. Fiber diameter is 300 nm and wavelength is 442 nm. (b) Py in the model of Fig. 2(a) simulated by FDTD. (c) Pz in the model of Fig. 2(a) simulated by FDTD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Py in the middle plane of the photoresist layer guided by 300-nm-diameter fiber. (b) Pz in the middle plane of the photoresist layer guided by 300-nm-diameter fiber. (c) Py in the middle plane of the photoresist layer guided by 450-nm-diameter fiber. (d) Pz in the middle plane of the photoresist layer guided by 450-nm-diameter fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Widths of light spots (measured in the middle plane of photoresist layer) versus fiber diameters. (a) Calculated results of Py. (b) Calculated results of Pz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of experiment setup for submicron-diameter fiber direct writing.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SEM image of the lines written by submicron-diameter fiber. The writing parameters of these lines are same: 16 µm/s writing speed and 40 nW probe output power. (b) Cross section profile of Fig. 6(a) measured by AFM. (c) SEM image of the lines written by submicron-diameter fiber at different speeds. The writing speeds of these lines from left to right are 20 µm/s, 12 µm/s, 12 µm/s, 9 µm/s respectively. Probe output power is 50 nW. (d) Cross section profile of Fig. 6(c) measured by AFM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM image of lines with minimum width. The diameter of probe tip is about 300 nm and the writing parameters are 20 µm/s writing speed and 50 nW probe output power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical microscope image of author’s name written by submicron-diameter fiber. Lines in different directions are aligned by two microscope cameras.

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