Abstract

Recently, invisible cloaks have attracted much attention due to their exciting property of invisibility, which are based on a solid theory of transformation optics and quasi-conformal mapping. Two kinds of cloaks have been proposed: free-space cloaks, which can render objects in free space invisible to incident radiation, and carpet cloaks (or ground-plane cloaks), which can hide objects under the conducting ground. The first free-space and carpet cloaks were realized in the microwave frequencies using metamaterials. The free-space cloak was composed of resonant metamaterials, and hence had restriction of narrow bandwidth and high loss; the carpet cloak was made of non-resonant metamaterials, which have broad bandwidth and low loss. However, the carpet cloak has a severe restriction of large size compared to the cloaked object. The above restrictions become the bottlenecks to the real applications of free-space and carpet cloaks. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of broadband and low-loss directive free-space cloak and compact-sized carpet cloak based on a recent theoretical study. Both cloaks are realized using non-resonant metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good invisibility properties have been observed in experiments. This approach represents a major step towards the real applications of invisibility cloaks.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kallos, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Ground-plane quasicloaking for free space," Phys. Rev. A 79, 063825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, and J. B. Pendry, "Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, and T. G. Philbin, "General relativity in electrical engineering," New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig,  et al. "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Argyropoulos, C.

E. Kallos, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Ground-plane quasicloaking for free space," Phys. Rev. A 79, 063825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, A.

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, L. H.

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

E. Kallos, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Ground-plane quasicloaking for free space," Phys. Rev. A 79, 063825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L. L.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, W. X.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kallos, E.

E. Kallos, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Ground-plane quasicloaking for free space," Phys. Rev. A 79, 063825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurylev, Y.

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassas, M.

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, and T. G. Philbin, "General relativity in electrical engineering," New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, and J. B. Pendry, "Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. P.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. F.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Li, and J. B. Pendry, "Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Philbin, T. G.

U. Leonhardt, and T. G. Philbin, "General relativity in electrical engineering," New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B. I.

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L. X.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig,  et al. "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, G.

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B. I.

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F. Y.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. M.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. Y.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, Q. Cheng, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, "Design of arbitrarily shaped concentrators based on conformally optical transformation of nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 264101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, and C. T. Chan, "Transformation media that rotate electromagnetic fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, H. F. Ma, X. Y. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, "Cylindrical-to-plane-wave conversion via embedded optical transformation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261903 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Roberts, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. L. Hou, J. Y. Chin, X. M. Yang, L. X. Qi, R. P. Liu, F. Y. Xu, and T. J. Cui, "Advanced parameter retrievals for metamaterial slabs using an inhomogeneous model," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "An optical cloak made of dielectrics," Nat. Mater. 8, 568-571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

U. Leonhardt, and T. G. Philbin, "General relativity in electrical engineering," New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, "Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media," Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. H. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Spatial mapping of the internal and external electromagnetic fields of negative index metamaterials," Opt. Express 16, 8694-8705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, "Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwells equations," Photon. Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

E. Kallos, C. Argyropoulos, and Y. Hao, "Ground-plane quasicloaking for free space," Phys. Rev. A 79, 063825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

W. X. Jiang, T. J. Cui, X. Y. Zhou, X. M. Yang, and Q. Cheng, "Arbitrary bending of electromagnetic waves using realizable inhomogeneous and anisotropic materials," Phys. Rev. E 78, 066607 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures," Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Chen, B. I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic Wave Interactions with a Metamaterial Cloak," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Greenleaf, Y. Kurylev, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, "Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, and J. B. Pendry, "Hiding under the carpet: A new strategy for cloaking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 203901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, "Broadband ground-plane cloak," Science 323, 366-369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig,  et al. "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. F. Thompson, B. K. Soni, and N. P. Weatherill, Handbook of Grid Generation (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999).

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, "Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies," Nat. Photon. in press (2009). Preprint at <http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.3508>.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The design for a compact-sized carpet cloak in free-space background. (a) Metamaterial refractive index distribution of the complete carpet cloaking region in which the mesh lines indicate the quasi-conformal mapping. The compact-sized cloaking region is shown within the box. (b) Expanded view of the compact-sized cloaking region in which the refractive indices below one are all designed as 1. (c) Photograph of the fabricated metamaterial carpet cloak and the concealed car model. (d) The design of non-resonant elements. The dimensions of the metamaterial unit cells are a=3 mm, w=0.2 mm, l=h+2w mm, and h varying from 0 to 2.2 mm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The effective parameters of the unit cells for h (shown in Fig. 1(d)) varying from 0 to 2.2 mm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The dimensions (h in Fig. 1(d)) of the non-resonant unit cells for the simplified carpet cloak (Fig. 1(c)).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured electric-field mapping of (a) the ground plane, (b) triangular metallic bump, and (c) ground-plane cloaked bump when collimated beam is incident at 10GHz. The rays display the wave propagation direction, and the dashed line indicates the normal of the ground in free space and that of the ground-plane cloak in the transformed space. (d) Collimated beam incident on the ground-plane cloaked bump at 11 GHz. (e) Collimated beam incident on the ground-plane cloaked bump at 12 GHz. (f) Collimated beam incident on the ground-plane cloaked bump at 13 GHz. Far-field patterns when collimated beam is incident at 10 GHz on (g) the ground plane, (h) the triangular metallic bump, (i) the carpet cloaked bump.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The simulated near-electric-field distributions of (a) ground plane, (b) full-parameter carpet cloak, and (c) simplified carpet cloak. (d) The far-field patterns of above three cases.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The transformation optical design for the directive free-space cloak. The metamaterial cloak region is embedded in free-space background. (a) Refractive index distribution of half free-space cloak in which the mesh lines indicate the quasi-conformal mapping. (b) Expanded view of the free-space cloaking region in which the refractive indices below one are all designed as 1. (c) The photo of the fabricated metamaterial sample. (d) The side elevation of the fabricated metamaterial sample.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The dimensions (h in Fig. 1(d)) of the non-resonant unit cells for the free-space cloak shown in Fig. 6(c).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulated electric-field distribution of the directive free-space cloak when a plane wave is incident horizontally at 10 GHz on (a) the bare metallic diamond-shaped object, (b) on the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz. The rays display the wave propagation direction. Measured electric-field mapping of the directive free-space cloak when a plane wave is incident horizontally on (c) the bare metallic diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz, (d) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz, (e) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 8 GHz, (f) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 9 GHz, (g) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 11 GHz, (h) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 12 GHz.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Simulated electric-field distribution of the directive free-space cloak when a plane wave is incident with a 8-degree angle at 10 GHz on (a) the bare metallic diamond-shaped object, (b) on the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz. The rays display the wave propagation direction. Measured electric-field mapping of the directive free-space cloak when a plane wave is incident with a 8-degree angle on (c) the bare metallic diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz, (d) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 10 GHz, (e) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 8 GHz, (f) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 9 GHz, (g) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 11 GHz, (h) the cloaked diamond-shaped object at 12 GHz.

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