Abstract

In this paper, we use the transfer matrix method to calculate the optical absorptance of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. For fixed filling ratio, significant optical absorption enhancement occurs when the lattice constant is increased from 100nm to 600nm. The enhancement arises from an increase in field concentration within the nanowire as well as excitation of guided resonance modes. We quantify the absorption enhancement in terms of ultimate efficiency. Results show that an optimized SiNW array with lattice constant of 600nm and wire diameter of 540nm has a 72.4% higher ultimate efficiency than a Si thin film of equal thickness. The enhancement effect can be maintained over a large range of incidence angles.

© 2009 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Tsakalakos, ““Nanostructures for photovoltaics,”,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 62(6), 175–189 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. S. Lewis, “Toward cost-effective solar energy use,” Science 315(5813), 798–801 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. C. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, “Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7670–7681 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, “Light trapping in solar cells in the wave domain,” In preparation.
  23. S. H. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 65(23), 235112 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).
  26. J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 209–229 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. F. Edwards, “Silicon (Si),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  30. ASTM, “Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: Air Mass 1.5 Spectra,” http://rredc.nreal.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5 .
  31. M. Li, Z. Y. Li, K. M. Ho, J. R. Cao, and M. Miyawaki, “High-efficiency calculations for three-dimensional photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 262–264 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Li, X. Hu, Z. Ye, K. M. Ho, J. Cao, and M. Miyawaki, “Higher-order incidence transfer matrix method used in three-dimensional photonic crystal coupled-resonator array simulation,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3498–3500 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, Norwood, MA, 2000).
  34. A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2972–2974 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light. (Princeton University Press, 2008), Chap. 8.
  37. H. R. Philipp, “Silicon Nitride (Si3N4),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E. D. Palik, ed., (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).
  38. K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. Ghebrebrhan, P. Bermel, Y. Avniel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Global optimization of silicon photovoltaic cell front coatings,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7505–7518 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  45. L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  46. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  47. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  48. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  49. O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghebrebrhan, P. Bermel, Y. Avniel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “Global optimization of silicon photovoltaic cell front coatings,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7505–7518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, “Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7670–7681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (12)

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, ““Nanostructures for photovoltaics,”,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

N. S. Lewis, “Toward cost-effective solar energy use,” Science 315(5813), 798–801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 209–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Algra, R. E.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andra, G.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrä, G.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avniel, Y.

Bakkers, E. P.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

Biswas, R.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, K. A.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunschwig, B. S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Cao, J.

Cao, J. R.

Cao, L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, S. H.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, B. M.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Codella, P. J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davuluru, A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duché, D.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Falk, F.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farjadpour, A.

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Filler, M. A.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawlik, A.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghebrebrhan, M.

Gippius, N. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gomez. Rivas, J.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gudiksen, M. S.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

Huang, J. L.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanescu, M.

Igari, S.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

Kaas, B. C.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kayes, B. M.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-H.

Korevaar, B. A.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauhon, L. J.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, M.

M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, N. S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Lewis, “Toward cost-effective solar energy use,” Science 315(5813), 798–801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Li, Z. Y.

Lieber, C. M.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, P. G.-Q.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

Luo, C.

Maldonado, S.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).

Miyawaki, M.

Muljarov, E. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, A.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ose, E.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 209–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peng, K. Q.

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pietrzykowski, M.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pietsch, M.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plass, K. E.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Plentz, J.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, T.

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).

Putnam, M. C.

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rand, J.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rapol, U.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, A.

Roundy, D.

Samulski, E. T.

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. Y.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sivakov, V.

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stelzner, T.

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sulima, O.

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, M. X.

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tawada, Y.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B. Z.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, ““Nanostructures for photovoltaics,”,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tumbleston, J. R.

Vervisch, W.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, A. L.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. J.

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

E. C. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G. H.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. F.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. L.

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. E. Plass, M. A. Filler, J. M. Spurgeon, B. M. Kayes, S. Maldonado, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Flexible Polymer-Embedded Si Wire Arrays,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 325–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

M. Law, J. Goldberger, and P. D. Yang, “Semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34(1), 83–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, M. X. Tang, and Y. Cui, “Wafer-scale silicon nanopillars and nanocones by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly and etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Kayes, M. A. Filler, M. C. Putnam, M. D. Kelzenberg, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth of vertically aligned Si wire arrays over large areas (> 1 cm2) with Au and Cu catalysts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(10), 103110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310–193313 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Spurgeon, K. E. Plass, B. M. Kayes, B. S. Brunschwig, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Repeated epitaxial growth and transfer of arrays of patterned, vertically aligned, crystalline Si wires from a single Si(111) substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(3), 032112–032113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Yu, S. M. Wong, G. Zhang, X. Sun, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Si nanopillar array optimization on Si thin films for solar energy harvesting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 033102–033103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, and B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, Y. Tawada, Y. Okamoto, A. Nakajima, and S. Igari, “Thin-film poly-Si solar cells on glass substrate fabricated at low temperature,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 69(2), 179–185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. C. Garnett and P. D. Yang, “Silicon nanowire radial p-n junction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(29), 9224–9225 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, and N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 25, 633–644 (2008).

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Photonic band structures,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(2), 209–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, M. Y. Shih, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. Pietrzykowski, P. J. Codella, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima, J. Rand, A. Davuluru, and U. Rapol, “Strong broadband optical absorption in silicon nanowire films,” J. Nanophotonics 1(1), 013552 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

L. Tsakalakos, ““Nanostructures for photovoltaics,”,” Mater. Sci. Eng. 62(6), 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (5)

O. L. Muskens, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, and A. Lagendijk, “Design of light scattering in nanowire materials for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2638–2642 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sivakov, G. Andrä, A. Gawlik, A. Berger, J. Plentz, F. Falk, and S. H. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells on glass: synthesis, optical properties, and cell parameters,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1549–1554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, B. C. Kaas, R. E. Algra, E. P. Bakkers, J. Gomez. Rivas, and A. Lagendijk, “Large photonic strength of highly tunable resonant nanowire materials,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 930–934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. Stelzner, M. Pietsch, G. Andra, F. Falk, E. Ose, and S. Christiansen, “Silicon nanowire-based solar cells,” Nanotechnology 19(29), 295203 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420(6911), 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Z. Tian, X. L. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. F. Yu, G. H. Yu, J. L. Huang, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449(7164), 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (3)

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, “Scattering-matrix treatment of patterned multilayer photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 60(4), 2610–2618 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 65(23), 235112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, “Quasiguided modes and optical properties of photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 66(4), 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. S. Lewis, “Toward cost-effective solar energy use,” Science 315(5813), 798–801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

K. Q. Peng, Y. Xu, Y. Wu, Y. J. Yan, S. T. Lee, and J. Zhu, “Aligned single-crystalline Si nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Small 1(11), 1062–1067 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Agrawal and P. Peumans, “Light trapping in solar cells in the wave domain,” In preparation.

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, Norwood, MA, 2000).

D. F. Edwards, “Silicon (Si),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

ASTM, “Reference Solar Spectral Irradiance: Air Mass 1.5 Spectra,” http://rredc.nreal.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5 .

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light. (Princeton University Press, 2008), Chap. 8.

H. R. Philipp, “Silicon Nitride (Si3N4),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E. D. Palik, ed., (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the vertically aligned silicon nanowire array. (b) Cross-sectional view of a single silicon nanowire.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive index (left axis) and absorption length (right axis) of crystalline silicon from Ref [29]. (b) The ASTM Air Mass 1.5 direct and circumsolar solar spectrum from Ref [30].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The dispersive band structures of a SiNW array for (a) a = 100nm (b) a = 500nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical properties of the SiNW array with varying lattice constant. In the left column, (a), (b), and (c) are the reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance, respectively, in the SiNW array with lattice constant 100nm and 500nm. The optical properties of a silicon thin film are plotted for comparison. In the right column, (d), (e), and (f) are the reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance, respectively, in the SiNW array with lattice constants 100nm, 150nm, and 200nm. The optical properties of the Si thin film are also plotted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Characteristic line shape of a guided resonance at 1.197eV (b) Top view of electric field energy density distribution on the end surface of the SiNW array at the resonance shown in (a). (c) Side view of electric field energy density distribution inside the nanowires at the same resonance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ultimate efficiency of the SiNW array as a function of lattice constant for several filling ratios.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The dependence of ultimate efficiency on incidence angle for (a) a 2.33μm-thick Si thin film with an optimized single-layer antireflection coating and (b) an optimal SiNW array (a = 600nm, d = 540nm).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η=310nmλgI(λ)A(λ)λλgdλ310nm4000nmI(λ)dλ
Jsc=310nmλgI(λ)A(λ)eλhcdλ=η×eλghc×310nm4000nmI(λ)dλ=81.83η(mA/cm2)

Metrics