Abstract

We report shifting of the frequency of an 850 nm laser with an instantaneous bandwidth of (350–1650) MHz and an efficiency between 35% (minimum) to 80% (best at frequencies around 600 and 1500 MHz) by phase modulation with a sawtooth waveform (“serrodyne frequency shifting”). We use a fiber-coupled traveling wave electro-optical modulator driven by a nonlinear transmission line.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. L. Hall and T. W. H¨ansch, "External dye-laser frequency stabilizer," Opt. Lett. 9, 502-504 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).
  3. E. Voges and K. Petermann, Optische Kommunikationstechnik (Springer, Berlin, 2002).
  4. N. Fujiwara et al., "140-nm Quasi-Continuous Fast Sweep Using SSG-DBR Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. C. D. Hobbs, Building Electro-optical Systems (Wiley, New York, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109112 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. K. Wong and R. M. De La Rue, "Electro-optic-waveguide Frequency Translator in LiNbO3 Fabricated by Proton Exchange," Opt. Lett. 7, 546-548 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Laroche, C. Bartolacci, G. Lesueur, H. Gilles, and S. Girard, "Serrodyne optical frequency shifting for heterodyne self-mixing in a distributed-feedback fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 33, 2746-2748 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Hisatake and T. Kobayashi, "Electro-optic transparent frequency conversion of a continuous light wave based on multistage phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 31, 498-500 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Afshari and A. Hajimiri, "A non-linear transmission line for pulse shaping in silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  40, 744752 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. N. Bond and L. Daniel, "A Piecewise-Linear Moment-Matching Approach to Parameterized Model-Order Reduction for Highly Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems,  26, 2116 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors - An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2006).
  15. D. M. S. Johnson, J. M. Hogan, S. Chiow, M. A. Kasevich, "Broadband Optical Serrodyne Frequency Shifting," arXiv:0909.1834.

2008

2007

B. N. Bond and L. Daniel, "A Piecewise-Linear Moment-Matching Approach to Parameterized Model-Order Reduction for Highly Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems,  26, 2116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

E. Afshari and A. Hajimiri, "A non-linear transmission line for pulse shaping in silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  40, 744752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

1988

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

1982

Afshari, E.

E. Afshari and A. Hajimiri, "A non-linear transmission line for pulse shaping in silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  40, 744752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartolacci, C.

Bond, B. N.

B. N. Bond and L. Daniel, "A Piecewise-Linear Moment-Matching Approach to Parameterized Model-Order Reduction for Highly Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems,  26, 2116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bortnik, B.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

Chou, J.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C. H.

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, L.

B. N. Bond and L. Daniel, "A Piecewise-Linear Moment-Matching Approach to Parameterized Model-Order Reduction for Highly Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems,  26, 2116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

Donley, E. A.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El-Wailly, T.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

Fetterman, H. R.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, N.

N. Fujiwara et al., "140-nm Quasi-Continuous Fast Sweep Using SSG-DBR Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

Girard, S.

H¨ansch, T. W.

Hajimiri, A.

E. Afshari and A. Hajimiri, "A non-linear transmission line for pulse shaping in silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  40, 744752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Heavner, T. P.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hisatake, S.

Hung, H.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

Jalali, B.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jefferts, S. R.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. M.

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Laroche, M.

Laskoskie, C.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

Lesueur, G.

Levi, F.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poberezhskiy, I. Y.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tataw, M. O.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, and H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne Frequency Translation of Continuous Optical Signals Using Ultrawide-band Electrical Sawtooth Waveform," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

E. Afshari and A. Hajimiri, "A non-linear transmission line for pulse shaping in silicon," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits,  40, 744752 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Fujiwara et al., "140-nm Quasi-Continuous Fast Sweep Using SSG-DBR Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems

B. N. Bond and L. Daniel, "A Piecewise-Linear Moment-Matching Approach to Parameterized Model-Order Reduction for Highly Nonlinear Systems," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design Of Integrated Circuits and Systems,  26, 2116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

C. Laskoskie, H. Hung, T. El-Wailly, and C. L. Chang, "Ti-LiNbO waveguide serrodyne modulator with ultrahigh sideband suppression for fiber optic gyroscopes," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 600606 (1989).

L. M. Johnson and C. H. Cox, "Serrodyne optical frequency translation with high sideband suppression," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 109112 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. A. Donley, T. P. Heavner, F. Levi, M. O. Tataw, and S. R. Jefferts, "Double-pass acousto-optic modulator system," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 063112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Voges and K. Petermann, Optische Kommunikationstechnik (Springer, Berlin, 2002).

P. C. D. Hobbs, Building Electro-optical Systems (Wiley, New York, 2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors - An Introduction for Engineers and Scientists (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2006).

D. M. S. Johnson, J. M. Hogan, S. Chiow, M. A. Kasevich, "Broadband Optical Serrodyne Frequency Shifting," arXiv:0909.1834.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of Experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Efficiency measured using the 7103 NLTL versus frequency for 3 different constant amplitude sine wave signals from the signal generator

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Performance of the two NLTLs when the input waveform is optimized for each frequency as described in the text

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Waveform after the 7103 NLTL as measured by a Tektronix 7904 oscilloscope equipped with an S-2 sampling plug-in (75 ps specified risetime) with a 20 dB attenuator. Input to the setup was 700MHz sine wave. The obtained efficiency of the resulting frequency shift was 68%.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Graph of the performance of the 7103 comb generator with first harmonic mixed into the input

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Power in dB referred to the total power for various sidebands. The -1.26 dB for the 1st sideband indicates a 75% shifting efficiency.

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