Abstract

We propose an ultra-small polarization splitter based on a resonant tunneling phenomenon. This polarization splitter consists of two identical horizontally oblong silicon wire waveguides separated by a vertical slot waveguide. The structural parameters of the central resonant slot waveguide are designed to couple only the TM-like mode between the left and right side silicon wire waveguides. Results from numerical simulation with the full-vectorial beam propagation method show that a 16-μm-long polarization splitter with extinction ratio better than −20 dB on the entire C-band is achieved.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).
  3. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Komatsu, K. Saitoh, K. Kakihara, and M. Koshiba, “Design of Ultra Small Polarization Splitter Based on Silicon wire Waveguides,” Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications 2008 Technical Digest IMC6 (2008).
  9. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Ultrasmall polarization splitter based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12401–12408 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Polarization rotator based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2628–2635 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3940–3946 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(3), 405–413 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, “Polarization splitter in three-core photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(17), 3940–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, R. U.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Baba, T.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Camarda, G. C.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Polarization rotator based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2628–2635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Ultrasmall polarization splitter based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12401–12408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Polarization rotator based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2628–2635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Ultrasmall polarization splitter based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12401–12408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Kartner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Motegi, A.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, F.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pizzuto, F.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, H.

R. U. Ahmed, F. Pizzuto, G. C. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood., “Ultra-compact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 65–67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, K.

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, and T. Baba, “Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 41(14), 801–802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Shinojima, H.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Polarization rotator based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2628–2635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Ultrasmall polarization splitter based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12401–12408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Uchiyama, S.

K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, E. Tamechika, M. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, T. Shoji, H. Fukuda, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon wire waveguiding system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 351–358 (2004).

Watanabe, T.

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Silicon photonic circuit with polarization diversity,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4872–4880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Polarization rotator based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2628–2635 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Ultrasmall polarization splitter based on silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12401–12408 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Watts, M. R.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic drawing of a polarization diversity system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the proposed polarization splitter consisting of two identical Si wire waveguides (WG1 and WG3) separated by a slot waveguide (WG2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective refractive indices of (a) TE-like mode and (b) TM-like mode as a function of the waveguide width w in the central WG2 with 250 nm height for several incremental values of the slot width g, where the dotted line in (a) and the dashed line in (b) represent the effective refractive indices of TE- and TM-like modes in the horizontally oblong side waveguides (WG1 and WG3) with 400 nm width and 250 nm height, respectively, at the 1550 nm operating wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric field distributions of three supermodes at 1550 nm for the TM-like wave in a three-core directional coupler. This structure supports three modes, two symmetric (a), (b) and one antisymmetric (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The WG2 width dependency of the value of 2n eff,3n eff,1n eff,2 for g = 60 nm. When the waveguide width in WG2 is defined as w ≈600 nm, the Eq. (1) is satisfied for the TM-like mode at 1550 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized power variation along the propagation distance (a) in WG1 and (b) WG3. We find that the TE-like mode launched into WG1 does not couple into WG3, while the TM-like mode completely couples into WG3. The separation of TE- and TM-like modes is achieved at a propagation distance of ~16 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The electric field distributions at the propagation distance of (a) 0 μm, (b) 8 μm, and (c) 16 μm at the 1550 nm operating wavelength. The left and right panels show the TE-like and TM-like modes, respectively. The TE-like mode launched into WG1 does not couple into WG3, while the TM-like mode completely couples into WG3 with a propagation length of about 16 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The wavelength dependence of the extinction ratios in WG1, ER1, and WG3, ER3, at a fixed device length of 16 μm. The bandwidth of −20 dB extinction ratio is almost 58 nm, from 1523 nm to 1581 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The wavelength dependence of insertion losses for the TE- and TM-like modes at a fixed device length of 16 μm. The polarization dependent loss of this device is less than 0.4 dB for the entire C-band.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The extinction ratios in WG1, ER1, and WG3, ER3, as a function of (a) WG2 width w, (b) slot width g, and (c) gap distance d.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The extinction ratio in WG1, ER1, as a function of the slot width g and the WG1 width w at the propagation length of 16 μm. The dashed lines represent the structure with extinction ratio of −20 dB.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Coupling length and operating wavelength as a function of gap distance d, where the slot width g is fixed as 60 nm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2neff,3neff,1neff,2=0,
L=λR/{2(neff,1neff,3)},
ER1=10log10OutputpoweroftheTM-likemodeinWG1OutputpoweroftheTE-likemodeinWG1,
ER3=10log10OutputpoweroftheTE-likemodeinWG3OutputpoweroftheTM-likemodeinWG3.

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