Abstract

We propose to use a combination of intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells with a two dimensional photonic crystal cavity to obtain narrow, strong thermal radiation spectra. Single peak thermal radiation is obtained due to the Lorentzian shape absorption spectrum of the intersubband transition and the single mode cavity embedded within the photonic band gap. We present an analysis based on the quantum Langevin theory. It is shown that local radiance of the narrow emission peak can be maximized to ~80% of the radiation from the blackbody devices when the photon dissipation rates of the cavity mode due to the intersubband absorption and that due to the radiation to the free space modes are equal. Guidelines for concrete device design are introduced, and an example device structure is shown.

© 2009 OSA

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  1. M. Planck, “Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum,” Annalen der Physik 309(3), 553–563 (1901).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Einstein, “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation,” Verhandlunger der Deuchen Physikalischen Gesellsachaft 18, 318 (1916).
  3. J. F. Waymouth, “Where will the next generation of lamps come from?” J. Light Vis. Environ. 13, 51 (1989).
  4. S. Maruyama, T. Kashiwa, H. Yugami, and M. Esashi, “Thermal radiation from two-dimensionally confined modes in microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1393 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “High-temperature resistive surface grating for spectral control of thermal radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1685 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Kusunoki, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Qualitative change of resonant peaks in thermal emission from periodic array of microcavities,” Electron. Lett. 39(1), 23 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Organ pipe radiant modes of periodic micromachined silicon surfaces,” Nature 324(6097), 549–551 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, “Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033821 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Thermal radiation from photonic crystals: a direct calculation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(21), 213905 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. W. Tsai, T. H. Chuang, C. Y. Meng, Y. T. Chang, and S. C. Lee, “High performance midinfrared narrow-band plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, “Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emission by a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 10105–10114 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Sai, H. Yugami, K. Nakamura, N. Nakagawa, H. Ohtsubo, and S. Maruyama, “Selective Emission of Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Eutectic Composite for Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1957–1961 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. C. West and S. J. Eglash, “First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a GaAs quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(12), 1156 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Asano, S. Noda, T. Abe, and A. Sasaki, “Near-infrared intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells on GaAs substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 2B), 1285–1291 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, “Normal-incidence intersubband (In, Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1937 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1667–1682 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Takayama, H. Kitagawa, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of complete photonic band gap in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Mochizuki, unpublished master’s thesis, Kyoto University, Electronic Science and Engineering, (2007).
  31. |gcav,21i|=[ωcav/2ℏVcavε0εrmax]1/2|M→|for the best position (see Eq. (28)). If we substitute εrmax = 3.4, Vcav=(λcav/2)3,ωcav=2πc/λcav and use λcav = 10μm and |M→| = 21eÅ 32, |gcav,21i|is evaluated to be ~5ns−1. In contrast, γSis reported to be of the order of 10~20 ps−1 even at 300 K and becomes larger for higher temperatures [33, 34]. Thus γS>>|gcav,21i| holds true for the devices under analysis.
  32. E. J. Roan and S. L. Chuang, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband electroabsorptions in a modulation-doped quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 3249 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. K. Lyo, “Quasihole lifetimes in electron gases and electron-hole plasmas in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43(9), 7091–7101 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier-carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45(3), 1107–1115 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. W. Tsai, T. H. Chuang, C. Y. Meng, Y. T. Chang, and S. C. Lee, “High performance midinfrared narrow-band plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, “Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Takayama, H. Kitagawa, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of complete photonic band gap in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, and S. Noda, “Control of light emission by 3D photonic crystals,” Science 305(5681), 227–229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects,” Nature 429(6991), 538–542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Thermal radiation from photonic crystals: a direct calculation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(21), 213905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “High-temperature resistive surface grating for spectral control of thermal radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1685 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Kusunoki, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, “Qualitative change of resonant peaks in thermal emission from periodic array of microcavities,” Electron. Lett. 39(1), 23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Maruyama, T. Kashiwa, H. Yugami, and M. Esashi, “Thermal radiation from two-dimensionally confined modes in microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Sai, H. Yugami, K. Nakamura, N. Nakagawa, H. Ohtsubo, and S. Maruyama, “Selective Emission of Al2O3/Er3Al5O12 Eutectic Composite for Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 4A), 1957–1961 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1667–1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Pan, E. Towe, and S. Kennerly, “Normal-incidence intersubband (In, Ga)As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, “Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emission by a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 10105–10114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Asano, S. Noda, T. Abe, and A. Sasaki, “Near-infrared intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells on GaAs substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 2B), 1285–1291 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier-carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45(3), 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. J. Roan and S. L. Chuang, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband electroabsorptions in a modulation-doped quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 3249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lyo, “Quasihole lifetimes in electron gases and electron-hole plasmas in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43(9), 7091–7101 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. F. Waymouth, “Where will the next generation of lamps come from?” J. Light Vis. Environ. 13, 51 (1989).

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(20), 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(23), 2486–2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Organ pipe radiant modes of periodic micromachined silicon surfaces,” Nature 324(6097), 549–551 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

L. C. West and S. J. Eglash, “First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a GaAs quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(12), 1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1916 (1)

A. Einstein, “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation,” Verhandlunger der Deuchen Physikalischen Gesellsachaft 18, 318 (1916).

1901 (1)

M. Planck, “Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum,” Annalen der Physik 309(3), 553–563 (1901).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

T. Asano, S. Noda, T. Abe, and A. Sasaki, “Near-infrared intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells on GaAs substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 2B), 1285–1291 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Takayama, H. Kitagawa, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Experimental demonstration of complete photonic band gap in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(6), 061107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, S. Noda, T. Abe, and A. Sasaki, “Near-infrared intersubband transitions in InGaAs/AlAs quantum wells on GaAs substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 2B), 1285–1291 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier-carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45(3), 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. T.

M. W. Tsai, T. H. Chuang, C. Y. Meng, Y. T. Chang, and S. C. Lee, “High performance midinfrared narrow-band plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

C. Luo, A. Narayanaswamy, G. Chen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Thermal radiation from photonic crystals: a direct calculation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(21), 213905 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. S.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

E. J. Roan and S. L. Chuang, “Linear and nonlinear intersubband electroabsorptions in a modulation-doped quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 3249 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, T. H.

M. W. Tsai, T. H. Chuang, C. Y. Meng, Y. T. Chang, and S. C. Lee, “High performance midinfrared narrow-band plasmonic thermal emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(3), 316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daly, J. T.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-dimensional photonic band-Gap defect mode laser,” Science 284(5421), 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davidovich, L.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1667–1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Domokos, P.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1667–1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, “Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eglash, S. J.

L. C. West and S. J. Eglash, “First observation of an extremely large-dipole infrared transition within the conduction band of a GaAs quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46(12), 1156 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, “On the Quantum Theory of Radiation,” Verhandlunger der Deuchen Physikalischen Gesellsachaft 18, 318 (1916).

El-Kady, I.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Esashi, M.

S. Maruyama, T. Kashiwa, H. Yugami, and M. Esashi, “Thermal radiation from two-dimensionally confined modes in microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, M.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, A. J. Stimpson, and J. Dowling, “Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, K.

K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gebhart, B.

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Organ pipe radiant modes of periodic micromachined silicon surfaces,” Nature 324(6097), 549–551 (1986).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenwald, A. C.

M. U. Pralle, N. Moelders, M. P. McNeal, I. Puscasu, A. C. Greenwald, J. T. Daly, E. A. Johnson, T. George, D. S. Choi, I. El-Kady, and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced narrow band infrared emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(25), 4685 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J. J.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, “Coherent emission of light by thermal sources,” Nature 416(6876), 61–64 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, “Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emission by a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 10105–10114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, “Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1667–1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hatade, K.

K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, K.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier-carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45(3), 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, P. J.

P. J. Hesketh, J. N. Zemel, and B. Gebhart, “Organ pipe radiant modes of periodic micromachined silicon surfaces,” Nature 324(6097), 549–551 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, I. El-Kady, R. Biswas, and K. M. Ho, “All-metallic three-dimensional photonic crystals with a large infrared bandgap,” Nature 417(6884), 52–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Maruyama, T. Kashiwa, H. Yugami, and M. Esashi, “Thermal radiation from two-dimensionally confined modes in microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(9), 1393 (2001).
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H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “High-temperature resistive surface grating for spectral control of thermal radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1685 (2003).
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K. Ikeda, H. T. Miyazaki, T. Kasaya, K. Yamamoto, Y. Inoue, K. Fujimura, T. Kanakugi, M. Okada, K. Hatade, and S. Kitagawa, “Controlled thermal emission of polarized infrared waves from arrayed plasmon nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021117 (2008).
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|gcav,21i|=[ωcav/2ℏVcavε0εrmax]1/2|M→|for the best position (see Eq. (28)). If we substitute εrmax = 3.4, Vcav=(λcav/2)3,ωcav=2πc/λcav and use λcav = 10μm and |M→| = 21eÅ 32, |gcav,21i|is evaluated to be ~5ns−1. In contrast, γSis reported to be of the order of 10~20 ps−1 even at 300 K and becomes larger for higher temperatures [33, 34]. Thus γS>>|gcav,21i| holds true for the devices under analysis.

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