Abstract

We demonstrate a novel random laser based on a single fiber Bragg grating. A long fiber Bragg grating fabrication technique allows the insertion of a large number of randomly distributed phase errors in the structure of the grating which induces light localization. By writing such a grating in a polarisation maintaining Er-doped fiber, a random laser is demonstrated by pumping the fiber with 976 and 1480 nm pump lasers. The number of emitted modes is observed to be a function of the length of the grating and of the pump power and single-mode operation is shown to be possible. The random fiber laser shows low-threshold (~3 mW) and measured ~0.5 pm emission linewidth at a wavelength of around 1534 nm.

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References

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  1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gouedard, D. Husson, C. Sauteret, F. Auzel, and A. Migus,“Genration of spatially incoherent short pulses in laser-pumped neodymium stoichiometric crystals and powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(12), 2358–2363 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Zaitsev, L. Deych, and V. Shuvayev, “Statistical properties of one-dimensional random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043906 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers’ light the way for new technologies,” Photon. Spectra , 119–127 (1994).
  9. O. Shapira and B. Fischer, “Localization of light in a random-grating array in a single-mode fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(12), 2542–2552 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. D. Freilikher, and S. A. Gredeskul, “Localization of waves in media with one-dimensional disorder,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), V. XXX, pp. 137–203.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. van Soest and A. Lajendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. Milner and A. Genack, “Photon localization laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Lizárraga, N. P. Puente, E. I. Chaikina, T. A. Leskova, and E. R. Méndez, “Single-mode Er-doped fiber random laser with distributed Bragg grating feedback,” Opt. Express 17(2), 395–404 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

V. Milner and A. Genack, “Photon localization laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Shapira and B. Fischer, “Localization of light in a random-grating array in a single-mode fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(12), 2542–2552 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. N. Timofeev and R. Kashyap, “High-power, ultra-stable, single-frequency operation of a long, doped-fiber external-cavity, grating-semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 6, 515–520 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. van Soest and A. Lajendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers’ light the way for new technologies,” Photon. Spectra , 119–127 (1994).

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1958 (1)

P. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109(5), 1492–1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P.

P. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109(5), 1492–1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, S. B.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bojor, L.

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chaikina, E. I.

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de S Menezes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deych, L.

O. Zaitsev, L. Deych, and V. Shuvayev, “Statistical properties of one-dimensional random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

Gagné, M.

Genack, A.

V. Milner and A. Genack, “Photon localization laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Hinklin, T.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Husson, D.

Kashyap, R.

Kostko, I. A.

Laine, R. M.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lajendijk, A.

G. van Soest and A. Lajendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers’ light the way for new technologies,” Photon. Spectra , 119–127 (1994).

Leskova, T. A.

Lizárraga, N.

Maciejko, R.

Martinez Gámez, M. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Méndez, E. R.

Migus, A.

Milner, V.

V. Milner and A. Genack, “Photon localization laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puente, N. P.

Raikh, M. E.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Shuvayev, V.

O. Zaitsev, L. Deych, and V. Shuvayev, “Statistical properties of one-dimensional random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timofeev, F. N.

F. N. Timofeev and R. Kashyap, “High-power, ultra-stable, single-frequency operation of a long, doped-fiber external-cavity, grating-semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 6, 515–520 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Soest, G.

G. van Soest and A. Lajendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. R.

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaitsev, O.

O. Zaitsev, L. Deych, and V. Shuvayev, “Statistical properties of one-dimensional random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, “Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Math. Gen. (1)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J. Phys. Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain,“Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Photon. Spectra (1)

N. M. Lawandy, “Paint-on lasers’ light the way for new technologies,” Photon. Spectra , 119–127 (1994).

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Anderson, “Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices,” Phys. Rev. 109(5), 1492–1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. R. Williams, S. B. Bayram, S. C. Rand, T. Hinklin, and R. M. Laine, “Laser action in strongly scattering rare-earth-metal-doped dielectric nanophosphors,” Phys. Rev. A 65(1), 013807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

G. van Soest and A. Lajendijk, “β factor in a random laser,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(44 Pt 2B), 047601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

V. Milner and A. Genack, “Photon localization laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Zaitsev, L. Deych, and V. Shuvayev, “Statistical properties of one-dimensional random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(4), 043906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma,“Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media (1)

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. D. Freilikher, and S. A. Gredeskul, “Localization of waves in media with one-dimensional disorder,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), V. XXX, pp. 137–203.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the interferometer. SL: spherical lens; PM: phase mask; EOPM: electro-optical phase modulators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection spectrum of a 30 cm long grating made from hydrogenated Er-doped PM fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of a 30 cm long grating made from hydrogenated Er-doped PM fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser power as a function of the pump power for a 20 cm grating with 976 and 1480 nm pump lasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Laser emission spectra of the 20 cm RFL for a 120 mW pump power at 1480 nm measured a few seconds apart.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser emission spectrum of the 30 cm RFL for a 120 mW pump power at 976 nm.

Equations (1)

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T(L)~exp(L/2ξ)

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