Abstract

In this report, we demonstrate the use of functionalized gold nanorods as amplification labels for ultra-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensing. Drastic sensitivity enhancement, owed to the electromagnetic interaction between the nanotag and the sensing film, was maximized using longitudinal plasmonic resonance of gold nanorods. The detection sensitivity of the nanorod-conjugated antibody is estimated to be ~40 pg/ml, which is 25 – 100 times more sensitive than the current reported values in the literature. This work paves the way to a new generation of ultra-sensitive nanoparticles-based biosensor platforms with maximized enhancement of sensitivity for ultra-fast screening and real-time detection of “hard-to-identify” biomolecules.

© 2009 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Seeded high yield synthesis of short Au nanorods in aqueous solution,” Langmuir 20(15), 6414–6420 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, L.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baev, A.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benkovic, S. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cha, S.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. L.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, C. J.

J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coutts, J.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Q.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H.-P.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, Q.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A.

Kabashin, A. V.

S. Patskovsky, M. Vallieres, M. Maisonneuve, I.-H. Song, M. Meunier, and A. V. Kabashin, “Designing efficient zero calibration point for phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensing,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2255–2263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keating, C. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, G.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, S. K.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, W.-C.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. F.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. H.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, L. A.

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Main, L.

J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maisonneuve, M.

Markowicz, P.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markowicz, P. P.

Meunier, M.

Mitchell, J. S.

J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Seeded high yield synthesis of short Au nanorods in aqueous solution,” Langmuir 20(15), 6414–6420 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musick, M. D.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Lyon, M. D. Musick, and M. J. Natan, “Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance immunosensing,” Anal. Chem. 70(24), 5177–5183 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicewarner, S. R.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, “Phase jumps and interferometric surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(25), 3917–3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

Prasad, P. N.

P. P. Markowicz, W. C. Law, A. Baev, P. N. Prasad, S. Patskovsky, and A. Kabashin, “Phase-sensitive time-modulated surface plasmon resonance polarimetry for wide dynamic range biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1745–1754 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, D.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roy, I.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, F. G.

L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sau, T. K.

T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Seeded high yield synthesis of short Au nanorods in aqueous solution,” Langmuir 20(15), 6414–6420 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, I.-H.

Suen, Y. K.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallieres, M.

Wong, C. L.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. P.

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2378–2380 (2004).
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J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yong, K.-T.

W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, W.

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
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J. S. Mitchell, Y. Wu, C. J. Cook, and L. Main, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance biosensing of small molecules,” Anal. Biochem. 343(1), 125–135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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W.-C. Law, P. Markowicz, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, A. Baev, S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, H.-P. Ho, and P. N. Prasad, “Wide dynamic range phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on measuring the modulation harmonics,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(5), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Real-time optical biosensor based on differential phase measurement of surface plasmon resonance,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(10), 2177–2180 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Wong, H. P. Ho, Y. K. Suen, S. K. Kong, Q. L. Chen, W. Yuan, and S. Y. Wu, “Real-time protein biosensor arrays based on surface plasmon resonance differential phase imaging,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24(4), 606–612 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
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L. He, M. D. Musick, S. R. Nicewarner, F. G. Salinas, S. J. Benkovic, M. J. Natan, and C. D. Keating, “Colloidal Au-Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance for Ultrasensitive Detection of DNA Hybridization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(38), 9071–9077 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Austin, J. Coutts, G. Knowles, J. Zou, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, “A one-step homogeneous immunoassay for cancer biomarker detection using gold nanoparticle probes coupled with dynamic light scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(9), 2780–2782 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

E. Hutter, S. Cha, J. F. Liu, J. Park, J. Yi, J. H. Fendler, and D. Roy, “Role of Substrate Metal in Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(1), 8–12 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Seeded high yield synthesis of short Au nanorods in aqueous solution,” Langmuir 20(15), 6414–6420 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, S. Y. Wu, X. H. Liu, S. P. Wong, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, “Phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor using the photoelastic modulation technique,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 114(1), 80–84 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley-Interscience: New York, 2004).

P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley-Interscience: New York, 2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM pictures and UV-vis absorption spectra of Au-NRs with the LSPR peak at 530, 642, 718 and 772 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Response curves obtained from immobilization of IgG on the sensor surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response curves obtained from immobilization of NR-642 conjugated anti-IgG (black curve) and unconjugated anti-IgG (red curve) to the IgG-modified sensor surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response curves obtained from the nonspecific binding between unconjugated Au NR and IgG-modified sensing film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of LSPR of Au-NRs on the enhancement factor using laser source operating at (a) 785nm and (b) 632nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FEA simulations of resonant Au-NR (radius is 10 nm, height is 40 nm, distance from the film is 10 nm) coupling to the film. The distribution in XZ-plane of time averaged electric energy density (J/m3) for (a) the bare film, (b) the film and the Au-NR perpendicular to the film, (c) the film and the Au-NR parallel to the film. The film and the rod are shown with gray lines.

Equations (1)

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kx=k0nglasssinθinc=ksp

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