Abstract

We report on single-photon interference experiments in a Michelson-type interferometer built with two 6-km-long fiber spools, as well as on the active stabilization of the interferometer. A weak coherent light signal was (de-) multiplexed with a strong reference light using wavelength-division multiplexing technique, and real-time feedback control technique was applied for the reference light to actively stabilize the phase fluctuation in the long-armed fiber interferometer. The stabilized interferometer showed phase stability of 0.06 rad, which corresponds to an optical path length fluctuation of 15 nm between the 6-km-long interfering arms. The raw visibility obtained without subtracting noise counts in the single-photon interference experiment was more than 98% for stabilized conditions.

© 2009 OSA

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  28. A piezo actuator can generally reach its nominal displacement in approximately 1/3 of the period of the resonant frequency. For more information see http://www.physikinstrumente.com .
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2008 (1)

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(2), 398–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

X.-F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z.-F. Han, Y.-Z. Gui, and G.-C. Guo, “Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2632–2634 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2002 (2)

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and K. D. Franson, “Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 052307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1998 (1)

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Koashi and N. Imoto, “Quantum cryptography based on split transmission of one-bit information in two steps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(12), 2383–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. A. Freschi and J. Frejlich, “Adjustable phase control in stabilized interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 20(6), 635–637 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Goldenberg and L. Vaidman, “Quantum cryptography based on orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7), 1239–1243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in 10 km long optical fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29(7), 634–635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, ““Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andresen, E. R.

Badizadegan, K.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Beveratos, A.

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briegel, H. J.

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burge, J. H.

Cirac, J. I.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crépeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

de Miranda, M. H. G.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delage, L.

Diddams, S. A.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L. M.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dur, W.

H. J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5932–5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eibl, M.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, ““Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franson, K. D.

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and K. D. Franson, “Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 052307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Gisin, N.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Landry, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum teleportation over the Swisscom telecommunication network,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(2), 398–403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goldenberg, L.

L. Goldenberg and L. Vaidman, “Quantum cryptography based on orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7), 1239–1243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gui, Y.-Z.

Guo, G.-C.

Han, Z.-F.

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horne, M. A.

M. Zukowski, A. Zeilinger, M. A. Horne, and A. K. Ekert, ““Event-ready-detectors” Bell experiment via entanglement swapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(26), 4287–4290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, N.

M. Koashi and N. Imoto, “Quantum cryptography based on split transmission of one-bit information in two steps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(12), 2383–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, H.

Jacobs, B. C.

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and K. D. Franson, “Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 052307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jozsa, R.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S. R.

Koashi, M.

M. Koashi and N. Imoto, “Quantum cryptography based on split transmission of one-bit information in two steps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(12), 2383–2386 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamachari, V. V.

Landry, O.

Lin, D.

Ludlow, A. D.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattle, K.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minár, J.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mo, X.-F.

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.-W.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peres, A.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and K. D. Franson, “Quantum relays and noise suppression using linear optics,” Phys. Rev. A 66(5), 052307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

Potma, E. O.

Rarity, J. G.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in 10 km long optical fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29(7), 634–635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J. E.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subacius, D.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tapster, P. R.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in 10 km long optical fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29(7), 634–635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, “Quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “““Plug and play” systems for quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(7), 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, J. G. Rarity, and P. R. Tapster, “Single photon interference in 10 km long optical fibre interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 29(7), 634–635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trifonov, A.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaidman, L.

L. Goldenberg and L. Vaidman, “Quantum cryptography based on orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(7), 1239–1243 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

Wax, A.

Weinfurter, H.

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature 390(6660), 575–579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wootters, W. K.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(13), 1895–1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavriyev, A.

D. Subacius, A. Zavriyev, and A. Trifonov, “Backscattering limitation for fiber-optic quantum key distribution systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, C. Simon, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Phase noise measurement in long-fiber interferometers for quantum-repeater applications,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 052325 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Nature (2)

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Opt. Express (3)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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A piezo actuator can generally reach its nominal displacement in approximately 1/3 of the period of the resonant frequency. For more information see http://www.physikinstrumente.com .

A part of the phase noise in Fig. 2 is caused by electronic noise and laser power fluctuations, and that is measured at about 0.002 rad.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. LD, distributed feedback laser diode; OVA, optical variable attenuator; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; Cir, optical circulator; BS, 50/50 fiber-optic beam splitter; FST, fiber stretcher; ODL, optical delay line; SMF, single-mode optical fiber; FM, Faraday rotator mirror; D1 and D2, linear photodetectors or single photon detectors; D3, linear photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A typical example of active stabilization for the 6-km-long Michelson-type fiber interferometer. (a) The phase noise of the signal light. (b) The distribution of the phase noise of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-photon interference experiments in the 6-km-long fiber interferometer. (a) Measured count rates for a stabilized and a nonstabilized condition. (b) Stabilization of the single-photon interference for different chosen values of the phase difference between two interfering arms.

Equations (2)

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φr=cos1[2(IrImin)ImaxImin1],                               0φrπ
nΔL=λr(mr+φr2π)=λs(ms+φs2π)

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